Abstract:
The string equation appearing in the double scaling limit of the Hermitian one--matrix model, which corresponds to a Galilean self--similar condition for the KdV hierarchy, is reformulated as a scaling self--similar condition for the Ur--KdV hierarchy. A non--scaling limit analysis of the one--matrix model has led to the complexified NLS hierarchy and a string equation. We show that this corresponds to the Galilean self--similarity condition for the AKNS hierarchy and also its equivalence to a scaling self--similar condition for the Heisenberg ferromagnet hierarchy.

Abstract:
It is shown that the self-induced transparency equations can be interpreted as a generating function for as positive so negative flows in the AKNS hierarchy. Mutual commutativity of these flows leads to other hierarchies of integrable equations. In particular, it is shown that stimulated Raman scattering equations generate the hierarchy of flows which include the Heisenberg model equations. This observation reveals some new relationships between known integrable equations and permits one to construct their new physically important combinations. Reductions of the AKNS hierarchy to ones with complex conjugate and real dependent variables are also discussed and the corresponding generating functions of positive and negative flows are found. Generating function of Whitham modulation equations in the AKNS hierarchy is obtained.

Abstract:
In this paper, we consider the discrete AKNS-D hierarchy, find the construction of the hierarchy, prove the bilinear identity and give the construction of the $\tau$-functions of this hierarchy.

Abstract:
The Adler-Shiota-van Moerbeke formula is employed to derive the $W$-constraints for the $p$-reduced BKP hierarchy constrained by the string equation. We also provide the Grassmannian description of the string equation in terms of the spectral parameter.

Abstract:
We derive a stochastic AKNS hierarchy using geometrical methods. The integrability is shown via a stochastic zero curvature relation associated with a stochastic isospectral problem. We expose some of the stochastic integrable partial differential equations which extend the stochastic KdV equation discovered by M. Wadati in 1983 for all the AKNS flows. We also show how to find stochastic solitons from the stochastic evolution of the scattering data of the stochastic IST. We finally expose some properties of these equations and also briefly study a stochastic Camassa-Holm equation which reduces to a stochastic Hamiltonian system of peakons.

Abstract:
This paper is devoted to the negative flows of the AKNS hierarchy. The main result of this work is the functional representation of the extended AKNS hierarchy, composed of both positive (classical) and negative flows. We derive a finite set of functional equations, constructed by means of the Miwa's shifts, which contains all equations of the hierarchy. Using the obtained functional representation we convert the nonlocal equations of the negative subhierarchy into local systems of higher order, derive the generating function of the conservation laws and the N-dark-soliton solutions for the extended AKNS hierarchy. As an additional result we obtain the functional representation of the Landau-Lifshitz hierarchy.

Abstract:
In this paper, we considered the q-deformation of AKNS-D hierarchy, proved the bilinear identity and give out the $\tau$-function of the q-deformed AKNS-D hierarchy.

Abstract:
It is well-known that the finite-gap solutions of the KdV equation can be generated by its recursion operator.We generalize the result to a special form of Lax pair, from which a method to constrain the integrable system to a lower-dimensional or fewer variable integrable system is proposed. A direct result is that the $n$-soliton solutions of the KdV hierarchy can be completely depicted by a series of ordinary differential equations (ODEs), which may be gotten by a simple but unfamiliar Lax pair. Furthermore the AKNS hierarchy is constrained to a series of univariate integrable hierarchies. The key is a special form of Lax pair for the AKNS hierarchy. It is proved that under the constraints all equations of the AKNS hierarchy are linearizable.

Abstract:
In this paper we study AKNS hierarchy. We find necessary and sufficient condition for functions $p$ and $q$ to be solution of some equation of AKNS hierarchy. Then we construct finite-gap Schrodinger potential using functions $p$ and $q$.