Abstract:
In this article we show that every closed oriented smooth 4-manifold can be decomposed into two codimension zero submanifolds (one with reversed orientation) so that both pieces are exact Kahler manifolds with strictly pseudoconvex boundaries and that induced contact structures on the common boundary are isotopic. Meanwhile, matching pairs of Lefschetz fibrations with bounded fibers are offered as the geometric counterpart of these structures. We also provide a simple topological proof of the existence of folded symplectic forms on 4-manifolds.

Abstract:
We investigate the recently reported analogies between pinned vortices in nano-structured superconductors or colloids in optical traps, and spin ice materials. The frustration of colloids and vortices differs essentially from spin ice. However, their effective energetics is made identical by the contribution of an emergent field associated to the topological charge, thus leading to a (quasi) ice manifold for lattices of even (odd) coordination. The equivalence extends to the local low-energy dynamics of the ice manifold, where the effect of geometric hard constraints can be subsumed into the spatial modulation of the emergent field, which mediates an entropic interaction between topological charges. There, as in spin ice materials, genuine ice manifolds enter a Coulomb phase, whereas quasi-ice manifolds posses a well defined screening length, provided by a plasma of embedded topological charges. The equivalence between the two systems breaks down in lattices of mixed coordination because of topological charge transfer between sub-latices. We discuss extensions to social and economical networks.

Abstract:
The aim of this article is to introduce and study certain topological invariants for closed, oriented three-manifolds Y. These groups are relatively Z-graded Abelian groups associated to SpinC structures over Y. Given a genus g Heegaard splitting of Y, these theories are variants of the Lagrangian Floer homology for the g-fold symmetric product of the surface relative to certain totally real subspaces associated to the handlebodies.

Abstract:
We identify and examine a generalization of topological sigma models suitable for coupling to topological open strings. The targets are Kahler manifolds with a real structure, i.e. with an involution acting as a complex conjugation, compatible with the Kahler metric. These models satisfy axioms of what might be called ``equivariant topological quantum field theory,'' generalizing the axioms of topological field theory as given by Atiyah. Observables of the equivariant topological sigma models correspond to cohomological classes in an equivariant cohomology theory of the targets. Their correlation functions can be computed, leading to intersection theory on instanton moduli spaces with a natural real structure. An equivariant $CP^1\times CP^1$ model is discussed in detail, and solved explicitly. Finally, we discuss the equivariant formulation of topological gravity on surfaces of unoriented open and closed string theory, and find a $Z_2$ anomaly explaining some problems with the formulation of topological open string theory.

Abstract:
In this work, we will verify some comparison results on Kahler manifolds. They are complex Hessian comparison for the distance function from a closed complex submanifold of a Kahler manifold with holomorphic bisectional curvature bounded below by a constant, eigenvalue comparison and volume comparison in terms of scalar curvature. This work is motivated by comparison results of Li and Wang .

Abstract:
It has been remarked in several previous works that the combination of center vortices and nexuses (a nexus is a monopole-like soliton whose world line mediates certain allowed changes of field strengths on vortex surfaces) carry topological charge quantized in units of 1/N for gauge group SU(N). These fractional charges arise from the interpretation of the standard topological charge integral as a sum of (integral) intersection numbers weighted by certain (fractional) traces. We show that without nexuses the sum of intersection numbers gives vanishing topological charge (since vortex surfaces are closed and compact). With nexuses living as world lines on vortices, the contributions to the total intersection number are weighted by different trace factors, and yield a picture of the total topological charge as a linking of a closed nexus world line with a vortex surface; this linking gives rise to a non-vanishing but integral topological charge. This reflects the standard 2\pi periodicity of the theta angle. We argue that the Witten-Veneziano relation, naively violating 2\pi periodicity, scales properly with N at large N without requiring 2\pi N periodicity. This reflects the underlying composition of localized fractional topological charge, which are in general widely separated. Some simple models are given of this behavior. Nexuses lead to non-standard vortex surfaces for all SU(N) and to surfaces which are not manifolds for N>2. We generalize previously-introduced nexuses to all SU(N) in terms of a set of fundamental nexuses, which can be distorted into a configuration resembling the 't Hooft-Polyakov monopole with no strings. The existence of localized but widely-separated fractional topological charges, adding to integers only on long distance scales, has implications for chiral symmetry breakdown.

Abstract:
The topological charge of center vortices is discussed in terms of the self-intersection number of the closed vortex surfaces in 4-dimensional Euclidian space-time and in terms of the temporal changes of the writhing number of the time-dependent vortex loops in 3-dimensional space.

Abstract:
In this article we introduce the notion of Polyhedral Kahler manifolds, even dimensional polyhedral manifolds with unitary holonomy. We concentrate on the 4-dimensional case, prove that such manifolds are smooth complex surfaces, and classify the singularities of the metric. The singularities form a divisor and the residues of the flat connection on the complement of the divisor give us a system of cohomological equations. Parabolic version of Kobayshi-Hitchin correspondence of T. Mochizuki permits us to characterize polyhedral Kahler metrics of non-negative curvature on CP^2 with singularities at complex line arrangements.

Abstract:
We use the framework of Quot schemes to give a novel description of the moduli spaces of stable n-pairs, also interpreted as gauged vortices on a closed Riemann surface with target Mat(r x n, C), where n >= r. We then show that these moduli spaces embed canonically into certain Grassmann manifolds, and thus obtain natural Kaehler metrics of Fubini-Study type; these spaces are smooth at least in the local case r=n. For abelian local vortices we prove that, if a certain "quantization" condition is satisfied, the embedding can be chosen in such a way that the induced Fubini-Study structure realizes the Kaehler class of the usual L^2 metric of gauged vortices.