Abstract:
In the following work we consider the possibility of explaining the observed baryon number asymmetry in the universe from simple baryon number violating modifications, involving massive scalar bosons, to the Standard Model. In these cases baryon number violation is mediated through a combination of Yukawa and scalar self-coupling interactions. Starting with a previously compiled catalogue of baryon-number violating extensions of the Standard Model, we identify the minimal subsets which can induce a $B-L$ asymmetry and thus be immune to sphaleron washout. For each of these models, we identify the region of parameter space that leads to the production of a baryon number asymmetry of the correct order of magnitude.

Abstract:
We propose a new mechanism for baryogenesis in supersymmetric extensions of the standard model, that does not depend on (super)GUT interactions. It occurs by the non-perturbative electroweak reprocessing of a lepton asymmetry. This lepton asymmetry is generated by the effects of lepton number violating induced operators, arising from "see-saw" (s)neutrino masses, which act on scalar condensate oscillations along flat directions of the supersymmetric standard model.

Abstract:
The most promising scenarios of baryogenesis seems to be the one through lepton number violation. Lepton number violation through a Majarana mass of the right-handed neutrinos can generate a lepton asymmetry of the universe when the right-handed neutrinos decay. The left-handed neutrinos get small Majorana masses through see-saw mechanism in these models. A triplet higgs scalar violating lepton number explicitly through its couplings to two leptons or two higgs doublets can also naturally give small Majorana masses to the left-handed neutrinos and also generate a lepton asymmetry of the universe. We review both these models of leptogenesis, where the lepton number asymmetry then gets converted to a baryon asymmetry of the universe before the electroweak phase transition.

Abstract:
A new mechanism for baryogenesis is proposed in the context of an extended Brans-Dicke (BD) theory. We generalize the BD scalar to complex field with CP violating coupling to curvature and show that the charged BD current can be enhanced during inflationary epoch. After inflation the current decays (via tree level interactions) into the standard model particles. When the BD scalar is charged under baryon and/or lepton number, the decay produces a net baryon number. Rather generically a sufficiently large scalar current can be produced during inflation to account for the observed baryon asymmetry of the Universe. Our baryogensis scenario can in an elegant way be incorporated into a model of extended inflation.

Abstract:
The mechanism of gravitational baryogenesis, based on the CPT-violating gravitational interaction between the derivative of the Ricci scalar curvature and the baryon-number current, is investigated in the context of the Gauss-Bonnet braneworld cosmology. We study the constraints on the fundamental five-dimensional gravity scale, the effective scale of B-violation and the decoupling temperature, for the above mechanism to generate an acceptable baryon asymmetry during the radiation-dominated era. The scenario of gravitational leptogenesis, where the lepton-number violating interactions are associated with the neutrino mass seesaw operator, is also considered.

Abstract:
The cosmological baryon asymmetry can be explained by the nonperturbative electroweak reprocessing of a lepton asymmetry generated in the out-of-equilibrium decay of heavy right-handed Majorana neutrinos. We analyze this mechanism in detail in the framework of a SO(10)-subgroup. We take three right-handed neutrinos into account and discuss physical neutrino mass matrices.

Abstract:
In gauge theories like the standard model, the electric charges of the fermions can be heavily constrained from the classical structure of the theory and from the cancellation of anomalies. There is however mounting evidence suggesting that these anomaly constraints are not as well motivated as the classical constraints. In light of this we discuss possible modifications of the minimal standard model which will give us complete electric charge quantisation from classical constraints alone. Because these modifications to the standard model involve the consideration of baryon number violating scalar interactions, we present a complete catalogue of the simplest ways to modify the standard model so as to introduce explicit baryon number violation. This has implications for proton decay searches and baryogenesis.

Abstract:
We have searched for five decay modes of the tau lepton that simultaneously violate lepton and baryon number: tau -> anti-proton gamma, tau -> anti-proton pi0, tau -> anti-proton eta, tau -> anti-proton 2pi0, and tau -> anti-proton pi0eta. The data used in the search were collected with the CLEO II detector at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR). The integrated luminosity of the data sample is 4.7 fb^{-1}, corresponding to the production of 4.3 x 10^6 tau+tau- events. No evidence is found for any of the decays, resulting in much improved upper limits on the branching fractions for the two-body decays and first upper limits for the three-body decays.

Abstract:
Recent results of neutrino oscillation experiments point to a nonvanishing neutrino mass. Neutrino mass models favour Majorana-type neutrinos. In such circumstances it is natural that the supersymmetric counterpart of the neutrino, the sneutrino, bears also lepton number violating properties. On the other hand, the fact that the universe exhibits an asymmetry in the baryon and antibaryon numbers poses constraints on the extent of lepton number violation in the light sneutrino sector if the electroweak phase transition is second or weak first order. From the requirement that the Baryon Asymmetry of the Universe should not be washed out by sneutrino induced lepton number violating interactions and sphalerons below the critical temperature of the electroweak phase transition we find that the mass splitting of the light sneutrino mass states is compatible with the sneutrino Cold Dark Matter hypothesis only for heavy gauginos and opposite sign gaugino mass parameters.

Abstract:
We discuss the effects of lepton number violating interactions namely, R-parity violation and leptoquarks on top quark pair production at the upcoming $e^+ e^-$ linear colliders. Effects of SU(2) singlet, doublet and triplet leptoquark interactions are investigated. R-parity violating minimal supersymmetric standard model also allows certain kinds of lepton number violating interactions which are same as singlet leptoquarks with left-handed interactions. We have calculated the cross-section of $e^+ e^- \to t \bar t$ in presence of the above interactions. With conservative values of lepton number violating coupling strengths we got enhancement of top-pair production cross-section in all of the above cases.