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Quantum Statistics with Classical Particles  [PDF]
Daniel Gottesman
Physics , 2005,
Abstract: Indistinguishability of particles is normally considered to be an inherently quantum property which cannot be possessed by a classical theory. However, Saunders has argued that this is incorrect, and that classically indistinguishable particles are possible. I make this suggestion concrete by describing a class of microscopic classical theories involving indistinguishable particles hopping stochastically on a graph, and show that it should be possible to experimentally create a physical system realizing a simple model by continuously observing atoms trapped in an optical lattice. The indistinguishable classical particles obey Bose-Einstein statistics, display the associated clustering phenomena, and in appropriate models, can even undergo Bose-Einstein condensation.
Classical confinement of test particles in higher-dimensional models: stability criteria and a new energy condition  [PDF]
Sanjeev S. Seahra
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.68.104027
Abstract: We review the circumstances under which test particles can be localized around a spacetime section \Sigma_0 smoothly contained within a codimension-1 embedding space M. If such a confinement is possible, \Sigma_0 is said to be totally geodesic. Using three different methods, we derive a stability condition for trapped test particles in terms of intrinsic geometrical quantities on \Sigma_0 and M; namely, confined paths are stable against perturbations if the gravitational stress-energy density on M is larger than that on \Sigma_0, as measured by an observed travelling along the unperturbed trajectory. We confirm our general result explicitly in two different cases: the warped-product metric ansatz for (n+1)-dimensional Einstein spaces, and a known solution of the 5-dimensional vacuum field equation embedding certain 4-dimensional cosmologies. We conclude by defining a confinement energy condition that can be used to classify geometries incorporating totally geodesic submanifolds, such as those found in thick braneworld and other 5-dimensional scenarios.
Quantum particles from classical statistics  [PDF]
C. Wetterich
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1002/andp.201000088
Abstract: Quantum particles and classical particles are described in a common setting of classical statistical physics. The property of a particle being "classical" or "quantum" ceases to be a basic conceptual difference. The dynamics differs, however, between quantum and classical particles. We describe position, motion and correlations of a quantum particle in terms of observables in a classical statistical ensemble. On the other side, we also construct explicitly the quantum formalism with wave function and Hamiltonian for classical particles. For a suitable time evolution of the classical probabilities and a suitable choice of observables all features of a quantum particle in a potential can be derived from classical statistics, including interference and tunneling. Besides conceptual advances, the treatment of classical and quantum particles in a common formalism could lead to interesting cross-fertilization between classical statistics and quantum physics.
Interacting classical and quantum particles  [PDF]
Alvin J. K. Chua,Michael J. W. Hall,C. M. Savage
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.85.022110
Abstract: We apply Hall and Reginatto's theory of interacting classical and quantum ensembles to harmonically coupled particles, with a view to understanding its experimental implications. This hybrid theory has no free parameters and makes distinctive predictions that should allow it to be experimentally distinguished from quantum mechanics. It also bears on the questions of quantum measurement and quantum gravity.
Classical anomalies for spinning particles  [PDF]
Jorge Gamboa,Mikhail Plyushchay
Physics , 1997, DOI: 10.1016/S0550-3213(97)00792-X
Abstract: We discuss the phenomenon of classical anomaly. It is observed for 3D Berezin-Marinov (BM), Barducci-Casalbuoni-Lusanna (BCL) and Cortes-Plyushchay-Velazquez (CPV) pseudoclassical spin particle models. We show that quantum mechanically these different models correspond to the same P,T-invariant system of planar fermions, but the quantum system has global symmetries being not reproducible classically in full in any of the models. We demonstrate that the specific U(1) gauge symmetry characterized by the opposite coupling constants of spin s=+1/2 and s=-1/2 states has a natural classical analog in CPV model but can be reproduced in BM and BCL models in an obscure and rather artificial form. We also show that BM and BCL models quantum mechanically are equivalent in any odd-dimensional space-time, but describe different quantum systems in even space-time dimensions.
Zwitters: particles between quantum and classical  [PDF]
C. Wetterich
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1016/j.physleta.2011.12.032
Abstract: We describe both quantum particles and classical particles in terms of a classical statistical ensemble, characterized by a probability distribution in phase space. By use of a wave function in phase space both can be treated in the same quantum formalism. The different dynamics of quantum and classical particles resides then only from different evolution equations for the probability distribution. Quantum particles are characterized by a specific choice of observables and time evolution of the probability density. All relations for a quantum particle in a potential, including interference and tunneling, can be described in terms of the classical probability distribution. We formulate the concept of zwitters - particles for which the time evolution interpolates between quantum and classical particles. Experiments can test a small parameter which quantifies possible deviations from quantum mechanics.
The Subatomic Particle Mass Spectrum  [PDF]
R. L. Oldershaw
Physics , 2010,
Abstract: Representative members of the subatomic particle mass spectrum in the 100 MeV to 7,000 MeV range are retrodicted to a first approximation using the Kerr solution of General Relativity. The particle masses appear to form a restricted set of quantized values of a Kerr-based angular momentum-mass relation: m = (sqrt n)(M), where values of n are a set of discrete integers and M is a revised Planck mass. A fractal paradigm manifesting global discrete self-similarity is critical to a proper determination of M, which differs from the conventional Planck mass by roughly 19 orders of magnitude. This exceedingly simple and generic mass equation retrodicts the masses of a representative set of 27 well-known particles with an average relative error of 1.6%. A more rigorous mass formula, which includes the total spin angular momentum rule of Quantum Mechanics, the canonical spin values of the particles, and the dimensionless rotational parameter of the Kerr angular momentum-mass relation, is able to retrodict the masses of the 8 dominant baryons in the 900 MeV to 1700 MeV range at the 99.7% level, on average.
Electromagnetic Field Particles in the Classical Theory  [PDF]
Srecko Botric,Krunoslav Ljolje
Physics , 2005,
Abstract: This simple analysis shows that photon-like particles are not strange within the conceptual framework of the classical electromagnetic field theory. Circular polarized waves lead to photons. Thus, light quantum hypothesis is not necessary.
Schrodinger equation for classical particles  [PDF]
M Kozlowski,J Marciak-Kozlowska,M Pelc
Physics , 2009,
Abstract: In this paper we propose the hyperbolic Schredinger equation (HS). The solution of the HS for a particle in a box is obtained. It is shown that for particles with m greater of Mp the energy spectrum is independent of the mass of particle.
Rindler Particles and Classical Radiation  [PDF]
D. E. Diaz,J. Stephany
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1088/0264-9381/19/14/314
Abstract: We describe the quantum and classical radiation by a uniformly accelerating point source in terms of the elementary processes of absorption and emission of Rindler scalar photons of the Fulling-Davies-Unruh bath observed by a co-accelerating observer.To this end we compute the emission rate by a DeWitt detector of a Minkowski scalar particle with defined transverse momentum per unit of proper time of the source and we show that it corresponds to the induced absorption or spontaneous and induced emission of Rindler photons from the thermal bath. We then take what could be called the inert limit of the DeWitt detector by considering the limit of zero gap energy. As suggested by DeWitt, we identify in this limit the detector with a classical point source and verify the consistency of our computation with the classical result. Finally, we study the behavior of the emission rate in D space-time dimensions in connection with the so called apparent statistics inversion.
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