Abstract:
Using the concept of open systems where the classical geometry is treated as the system and the quantum matter field as the environment, we derive a fluctuation-dissipation theorem for semiclassical cosmology. This theorem which exists under very general conditions for dissipations in the dynamics of the system, and the noise and fluctuations in the environment, can be traced to the formal mathematical relation between the dissipation and noise kernels of the influence functional depicting the open system, and is ultimately a consequence of the unitarity of the closed system. In particular, for semiclassical gravity, it embodies the backreaction effect of matter fields on the dynamics of spacetime. The backreaction equation derivable from the influence action is in the form of a Einstein-Langevin equation. It contains a dissipative term in the equation of motion for the dynamics of spacetime and a noise term related to the fluctuations of particle creation in the matter field. Using the well-studied model of a quantum scalar field in a Bianchi Type-I universe we illustrate how this Langevin equation and the noise term are derived and show how the creation of particles and the dissipation of anisotropy during the expansion of the universe can be understood as a manifestation of this fluctuation-dissipation relation.

Abstract:
Recently there has been considerable interest in the Fluctuation Theorem (FT). The FT shows how time reversible microscopic dynamics leads to irreversible macroscopic behavior as the system size or observation time increases. We show that the argument of the Evans-Searles FT, the dissipation function, plays a central role in nonlinear response theory and derive the Dissipation Theorem, giving exact relations for nonlinear response of classical N-body systems. These expressions should be verifiable experimentally. When linearized they reduce to the Green-Kubo expressions for linear response.

Abstract:
The relationship between entransy dissipation and the irreversibility of some thermodynamic processes, such as heat transfer, work-heat conversion, free expansion, isothermal diffusion etc., are analyzed in this paper. The results show that there is entropy generation but no entransy dissipation in irreversible work-heat conversion, free expansion and isothermal diffusion. Therefore, entransy dissipation cannot be used to describe the irreversibility of these processes. Both entropy generation and entransy dissipation exist in heat transfer process, which indicates that the entransy dissipation can be used to describe the irreversibility of heat transfer processes. Furthermore, the irreversibility of endoreversible cycles is analyzed. As all the irreversibility in endoreversible cycles is attributed to heat transfer between the heat sources and the working medium, entransy dissipation can be used to describe the irreversibility of this kind of cycles. To verify this conclusion, numerical examples of the endoreversible Carnot cycle are discussed.

Abstract:
The main idea of "Quantum Chaos" studies is that Quantum Mechanics introduces two energy scales into the study of chaotic systems: One is obviously the mean level spacing $\Delta\propto\hbar^d$, where $d$ is the dimensionality; The other is $\Delta_b\propto\hbar$, which is known as the non-universal energy scale, or as the bandwidth, or as the Thouless energy. Associated with these two energy scales are two special quantum-mechanical (QM) regimes in the theory of driven system. These are the QM adiabatic regime, and the QM non-perturbative regime respectively. Otherwise Fermi golden rule applies, and linear response theory can be trusted. Demonstrations of this general idea, that had been published in 1999, have appeared in studies of wavepacket dynamics, survival probability, dissipation, quantum irreversibility, fidelity and dephasing.

Abstract:
In their recent paper [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 094101 (2007)], A. Porporato et al. studied the irreversibility and fluctuation theorem for stationary time series. In this comment, we point out that the fluctuation theorem is in fact the trivial outcome of a symmetry operation, and hence its physical contect is less convincing.

Abstract:
The recent development of the theory of fluctuation relations has led to new insights into the ever-lasting question of how irreversible behavior emerges from time-reversal symmetric microscopic dynamics. We provide an introduction to fluctuation relations, examine their relation to dissipation and discuss their impact on the arrow of time question.

Abstract:
In this letter I show that the recently proposed local version of the fluctuation dissipation relations follows from the general principle of stochastic stability in a way that is very similar to the usual proof of the fluctuation dissipation theorem for intensive quantities. Similar arguments can be used to prove that all sites in an aging experiment stay at the same effective temperature at the same time.

Abstract:
We suggest to take the fluctuation-dissipation theorem of Callen and Welton as a basis to study quantum dissipative phenomena (such as macroscopic quantum tunneling) in a manner analogous to the Nambu-Goldstone theorem for spontaneous symmetry breakdown. It is shown that the essential physical contents of the Caldeira-Leggett model such as the suppression of quantum coherence by Ohmic dissipation are derived from general principles only, namely, the fluctuation-dissipation theorem and unitarity and causality (i.e., dispersion relations), without referring to an explicit form of the Lagrangian. An interesting connection between quantum tunneling with Ohmic dissipation and the Anderson's orthogonality theorem is also noted.

Abstract:
The relation between a recently introduced dynamical real space renormalization group and the fluctuation-dissipation theorem is discussed. An apparent incompatibility is pointed out and resolved.

Abstract:
We analyze fluctuation-dissipation relations in the Backgammon model: a system that displays glassy behavior at zero temperature due to the existence of entropy barriers. We study local and global fluctuation relations for the different observables in the model. For the case of a global perturbation we find a unique negative fluctuation-dissipation ratio that is independent of the observable and which diverges linearly with the waiting time. This result suggests that a negative effective temperature can be observed in glassy systems even in the absence of thermally activated processes.