Abstract:
We investigate the dependence of band dispersion of the quantum spin Hall effect (QSHE) edge states in the Kane-Mele model on crystallographic orientation of the edges. Band structures of the one-dimensional honeycomb lattice ribbons show the presence of the QSHE edge states at all orientations of the edges given sufficiently strong spin-orbit interactions. We find that the Fermi velocities of the QSHE edge-state bands increase monotonically when the edge orientation changes from zigzag (chirality angle $\theta = 0^\circ$) to armchair ($\theta = 30^\circ$). We propose a simple analytical model to explain the numerical results.

Abstract:
We investigate the edge state of a two-dimensional topological insulator based on the Kane-Mele model. Using complex wave numbers of the Bloch wave function, we derive an analytical expression for the edge state localized near the edge of a semi-infinite honeycomb lattice with a straight edge. For the comparison of the edge type effects, two types of the edges are considered in this calculation; one is a zigzag edge and the other is an armchair edge. The complex wave numbers and the boundary condition give the analytic equations for the energies and the wave functions of the edge states. The numerical solutions of the equations reveal the intriguing spatial behaviors of the edge state. We define an edge-state width for analyzing the spatial variation of the edge-state wave function. Our results show that the edge-state width can be easily controlled by a couple of parameters such as the spin-orbit coupling and the sublattice potential. The parameter dependences of the edge-state width show substantial differences depending on the edge types. These demonstrate that, even if the edge states are protected by the topological property of the bulk, their detailed properties are still discriminated by their edges. This edge dependence can be crucial in manufacturing small-sized devices since the length scale of the edge state is highly subject to the edges.

Abstract:
We theoretically investigate the phase transition from topological insulator (TI) to superconductor in the attractive U Kane-Mele-Hubbard model with self-consistent mean field method. We demonstrate the existence of edge superconducting state (ESS), in which the bulk is still an insulator and the superconductivity only appears near the edges. The ESS results from the special energy dispersion of TI, and is a general property of the superconductivity in TI. The phase transition in this model essentially consists of two steps. When the attractive U becomes nonzero, ESS appears immediately. After the attractive U exceeds a critical value $U_c$, the whole system becomes a superconductor. The effective model of the ESS has also been discussed and we believe that the conception of ESS can be realized in atomic optical lattice system.

Abstract:
We study the quantum phases and phase transitions of the Kane-Mele Hubbard (KMH) model on a zigzag ribbon of honeycomb lattice at a finite size via the weak-coupling renormalization group (RG) approach. In the non-interacting limit, the KM model is known to support topological edge states where electrons show helical property with orientations of the spin and momentum being locked. The effective inter-edge hopping terms are generated due to finite-size effect. In the presence of an on-site Coulomb repulsive interaction and the inter-edge hoppings, special focus is put on the stability of the topological edge states (TI phase) in the KMH model against (i) the charge and spin gaped (II) phase, (ii) the charge gaped but spin gapless (IC) phase and (iii) the spin gaped but charge gapless (CI) phase depending on the number (even/odd) of the zigzag ribbons, doping level (electron filling factor) and the ratio of the Coulomb interaction to the inter-edge tunneling. We discuss different phase diagrams for even and odd numbers of zigzag ribbons. We find the TI-CI, II-IC, and II-CI quantum phase transitions are of the Kosterlitz-Thouless (KT) type. By computing various correlation functions, we further analyze the nature and leading instabilities of these phases.

Abstract:
A graphene nano-ribbon in the zigzag edge geometry exhibits a specific type of gapless edge modes with a partly flat band dispersion. We argue that the appearance of such edge modes are naturally understood by regarding graphene as the gapless limit of a Z 2 topological insulator. To illustrate this idea, we consider both Kane-Mele (graphene-based) and Bernevig-Hughes-Zhang models: the latter is proposed for HgTe/CdTe 2D quantum well. Much focus is on the role of valley degrees of freedom, especially, on how they are projected onto and determine the 1D edge spectrum in different edge geometries.

Abstract:
There has been tremendous recent progress in realizing topological insulator initiated by the proposal of Kane and Mele for the graphene system. They have suggested that the odd $Z_2$ index for the graphene manifests the spin filtered edge states for the graphene nanoribbons, which lead to the quantum spin Hall effect(QSHE). Here we investigate the role of the spin-orbit interaction both for the zigzag and armchair nanoribbons with special care in the edge geometry. For the pristine zigzag nanoribbons, we have shown that one of the $\sigma$ edge bands located near E=0 lifts up the energy of the spin filtered chiral edge states at the zone boundary by warping the $\pi$-edge bands, and hence the QSHE does not occur. Upon increasing the carrier density above a certain critical value, the spin filtered edge states are formed leading to the QSHE. We suggest that the hydrogen passivation on the edge can recover the original feature of the QSHE. For the armchair nanoribbon, the QSHE is shown to be stable. We have also derived the real space effective hamiltonian, which demonstrates that the on-site energy and the effective spin orbit coupling strength are strongly enhanced near the ribbon edges. We have shown that the steep rise of the confinement potential thus obtained is responsible for the warping of the $\pi$-edge bands.

Abstract:
The realization of the spin-Hall effect in quantum wells has led to a plethora of studies regarding the properties of the edge states of a 2D topological insulator. These edge states constitute a class of one-dimensional liquids, called the helical liquid, where an electron's spin quantization axis is tied to its momentum. In contrast to one dimensional conductors, magnetic impurities - below the Kondo temperature - cannot block transport and one expects the current to circumvent the impurity. To study this phenomenon, we consider the single impurity Anderson model embedded into an edge of a Kane-Mele ribbon with up to 512x80 sites and use the numerically exact continuous time QMC method to study the Kondo effect. We present results on the temperature dependence of the spectral properties of the impurity and the bulk system that show the behaviour of the system in the various regimes of the Anderson model. A view complementary to the single particle spectral functions can be obtained using the spatial behaviour of the spin-spin correlation functions. Here we show the characteristic, algebraic decay in the edge channel near the impurity.

Abstract:
We study graphene which has both spin-orbit coupling (SOC), taken to be of the Kane-Mele form, and a Zeeman field induced due to proximity to a ferromagnetic material. We show that a zigzag interface of graphene having SOC with its pristine counterpart hosts robust chiral edge modes in spite of the gapless nature of the pristine graphene; such modes do not occur for armchair interfaces. Next we study the change in the local density of states (LDOS) due to the presence of an impurity in graphene with SOC and Zeeman field, and demonstrate that the Fourier transform of the LDOS close to the Dirac points can act as a measure of the strength of the spin-orbit coupling; in addition, for a specific distribution of impurity atoms, the LDOS is controlled by a destructive interference effect of graphene electrons which is a direct consequence of their Dirac nature. Finally, we study transport across junctions which separates spin-orbit coupled graphene with Kane-Mele and Rashba terms from pristine graphene both in the presence and absence of a Zeeman field. We demonstrate that such junctions are generally spin active, namely, they can rotate the spin so that an incident electron which is spin polarized along some direction has a finite probability of being transmitted with the opposite spin. This leads to a finite, electrically controllable, spin current in such graphene junctions. We discuss possible experiments which can probe our theoretical predictions.

Abstract:
We prove that the Kane-Mele-Hubbard model with purely imaginary next-nearest-neighbor hoppings has a particle-hole symmetry at half-filling. Such a symmetry has interesting consequences including the absence of charge and spin currents along open edges, and the absence of the sign problem in the determinant quantum Monte-Carlo simulations. Consequentially, the interplay between band topology and strong correlations can be studied at high numeric precisions. The process that the topological band insulator evolves into the antiferromagnetic Mott insulator as increasing interaction strength is studied by calculating both the bulk and edge electronic properties. In agreement with previous theory analyses, the numeric simulations show that the Kane-Mele-Hubbard model exhibits three phases as increasing correlation effects: the topological band insulating phase with stable helical edges, the bulk paramagnetic phase with unstable edges, and the bulk antiferromagnetic phase.

Abstract:
We consider the Kane-Mele-Hubbard model with a magnetic $\pi$ flux threading each honeycomb plaquette. The resulting model has remarkably rich physical properties. In each spin sector, the noninteracting band structure is characterized by a total Chern number $C=\pm 2$. Fine-tuning of the intrinsic spin-orbit coupling $\lambda$ leads to a quadratic band crossing point associated with a topological phase transition. At this point, quantum Monte Carlo simulations reveal a magnetically ordered phase which extends to weak coupling. Although the spinful model has two Kramers doublets at each edge and is explicitly shown to be a $Z_{2}$ trivial insulator, the helical edge states are protected at the single-particle level by translation symmetry. Drawing on the bosonized low-energy Hamiltonian, we predict a correlation-induced gap as a result of umklapp scattering for half-filled bands. For strong interactions, this prediction is confirmed by quantum Monte Carlo simulations.