Abstract:
We investigate the consequences of a nonzero bulk viscosity coefficient on the transverse momentum spectra, azimuthal momentum anisotropy, and multiplicity of charged hadrons produced in heavy ion collisions at LHC energies. The agreement between a realistic 3D hybrid simulation and the experimentally measured data considerably improves with the addition of a bulk viscosity coefficient for strongly interacting matter. This paves the way for an eventual quantitative determination of several QCD transport coefficients from the experimental heavy ion and hadron-nucleus collision programs.

Abstract:
We study the bulk viscosity of a pion gas in unitarized Chiral Perturbation Theory at low and moderate temperatures, below any phase transition to a quark-gluon plasma phase. We argue that inelastic processes are irrelevant and exponentially suppressed at low temperatures. Since the system falls out of chemical equilibrium upon expansion,a pion chemical potential must be introduced, so we extend the existing theory to include it. We control the zero modes of the collision operator and Landau's conditions of fit when solving the Boltzmann equation with the elastic collision kernel. The dependence of the bulk viscosity with temperature is reminiscent of the findings of Fernandez-Fraile and Gomez Nicola, while the numerical value is closer to that of Davesne. In the zero-temperature limit we correctly recover the vanishing viscosity associated to a non-relativistic monoatomic gas.

Abstract:
A universe consisting of two interacting perfect fluids with the same 4-velocity is considered. A heuristic mean free time argument is used to show that the system as a whole cannot be perfect as well but neccessarily implies a nonvanishing bulk viscosity. A new formula for the latter is derived and compared with corresponding results of radiative hydrodynamics.

Abstract:
A variety of physical phenomena can lead to viscous effects. Several sources of shear and bulk viscosity are reviewed with an emphasis on the bulk viscosity associated with chiral restoration and with chemical non-equilibrium. We show that in a mean-field treatment of the limiting case of a second order phase transition, the bulk viscosity peaks in a singularity at the critical point.

Abstract:
We present a simple (microscopic) model in which bulk viscosity plays a role in explaining the present acceleration of the universe. The effect of bulk viscosity on the Friedmann equations is to turn the pressure into an "effective" pressure containing the bulk viscosity. For a sufficiently large bulk viscosity, the effective pressure becomes negative and could mimic a dark energy equation of state. Our microscopic model includes self-interacting spin-zero particles (for which the bulk viscosity is known) that are added to the usual energy content of the universe. We study both background equations and linear perturbations in this model. We show that a dark energy behavior is obtained for reasonable values of the two parameters of the model (i.e. the mass and coupling of the spin-zero particles) and that linear perturbations are well-behaved. There is no apparent fine tuning involved. We also discuss the conditions under which hydrodynamics holds, in particular that the spin-zero particles must be in local equilibrium today for viscous effects to be important.

Abstract:
The concept of negative temperatures has occasionally been used in connection with quantum systems. A recent example of this sort is reported in the paper of S. Braun et al. [Science 339,52 (2013)], where an attractively interacting ensemble of ultracold atoms is investigated experimentally and found to correspond to a negative-temperature system since the entropy decreases with increasing energy at the high end of the energy spectrum. As the authors suggest, it would be of interest to investigate whether a suitable generalization of standard cosmological theory could be helpful, in order to elucidate the observed accelerated expansion of the universe usually explained in terms of a positive tensile stress (negative pressure). In the present note we take up this basic idea and investigate a generalization of the standard viscous cosmological theory, not by admitting negative temperatures but instead by letting the bulk viscosity take negative values. Evidently, such an approach breaks standard thermodynamics, but may actually be regarded to lead to the same kind of bizarre consequences as the standard approach of admitting the equation-of-state parameter w to be less than -1. In universe models dominated by negative viscosity we find that the fluid's entropy decreases with time, as one would expect. Moreover, we find that the fluid transition from the quintessence region into the phantom region (thus passing the phantom divide w=-1) can actually be reversed. Also in generalizations of the LCDM-universe models with a fluid having negative bulk viscosity we find that the viscosity decreases the expansion of the universe.

Abstract:
We investigate particle spectra and elliptic flow coefficients in relativistic heavy ion collisions by taking into account the distortion of phase space distributions due to bulk viscosity at freezeout. We first calculate the distortion of phase space distributions in a multi-component system within the Grad's fourteen moment method. We find some subtle issues when one matches macroscopic variables with microscopic momentum distributions in a multi-component system and develop a consistent procedure to uniquely determine the corrections in the phase space distributions. Next, we calculate particle spectra by using the Cooper-Frye formula to see the effect of the bulk viscosity. In spite of the relative smallness of the bulk viscosity, we find that it is likely to have a visible effect in particle spectra and elliptic flow coefficients. This indicates the importance of bulk viscosity together with shear viscosity if one wants to constrain the transport coefficients with better accuracy from experimental data.

Abstract:
With the aim of locating the origin of discrepancy between experimental and computer simulation results on bulk viscosity of liquid argon, a molecular dynamic simulation of argon interacting via ab initio pair potential and triple-dipole three-body potential has been undertaken. Bulk viscosity, obtained using Green-Kubo formula, is different from the values obtained from modeling argon using Lennard-Jones potential, the former being closer to the experimental data. The conclusion is made that many-body inter-atomic interaction plays a significant role in formation of bulk viscosity.

Abstract:
We develop a nonlinear generalisation of the causal linear thermodynamics of bulk viscosity, incorporating positivity of the entropy production rate and the effective specific entropy. The theory is applied to viscous fluid inflation (which is necessarily far from equilibrium), and we find thermodynamically consistent inflationary solutions, both exponential and power-law.

Abstract:
We compute the bulk viscosity of a mixed quark-hadron phase. In the first scenario to be discussed, the mixed phase occurs at large densities and we assume that it is composed of a mixing of hyperonic matter and quarks in the Color Flavor Locked phase. In a second scenario, the mixed phase occurs at lower densities and it is composed of a mixing of nucleons and unpaired quark matter. We have also investigated the effect of a non-vanishing surface tension at the interface between hadronic and quark matter. In both scenarios, the bulk viscosity is large when the surface tension is absent, while the value of the viscosity reduces in the second scenario when a finite value for the surface tension is taken into account. In all cases, the r-mode instabilities of the corresponding hybrid star are suppressed.