Abstract:
A possible equivalence of scalar dark matter, the inflaton, and modified gravity is analyzed. After a conformal mapping, the dependence of the effective Lagrangian on the curvature is not only singular but also bifurcates into several almost Einsteinian spaces, distinguished only by a different effective gravitational strength and cosmological constant. A swallow tail catastrophe in the bifurcation set indicates the possibility for the coexistence of different Einsteinian domains in our Universe. This `triple unification' may shed new light on the nature and large scale distribution not only of dark matter but also on `dark energy', regarded as an effective cosmological constant, and inflation.

Abstract:
We propose a new class of gravity-matter models defined in terms of two independent non-Riemannian volume forms (alternative generally covariant integration measure densities) on the spacetime manifold. For the matter we choose appropriate scalar field potentials of exponential form so that the full gravity-matter system is invariant under global Weyl-scale symmetry. Solution of the pertinent equations of motion produce two dimensionful integration constants which spontaneously break global Weyl-scale invariance. In the resulting effective Einstein-frame gravity-matter system we obtain an effective potential for the scalar matter field which has an interesting cosmological application, namely, it allows for a unified description of both an early universe inflation and present day dark energy.

Abstract:
Dark matter and dark energy are essential in the description of the late Universe, since at least the epoch of equality. On the other hand, the inflation is also necessary and demands a "dark" component, usually associated to a scalar field that dominated the dynamics and kinematics in the very early Universe. Yet, these three dark components of standard model of cosmology are independent from each other, although there are alternative models that pursue to achieve a triple unification, or at least a double. In the present work we present an update of two models that we have considered in recent years. The first is the "dark fluid" model in which dark matter and dark energy are the same thing, achieving a double unification with specific properties that exactly emulate the standard model of cosmology, given the dark degeneracy that exists in the LCDM model. The second model is given by a single F(X) scalar field Lagrangian, with which one is able to model the whole cosmological dynamics, from inflation to today, representing a triple unification model. We highlight the main properties of these models, as well as we test them against known cosmological probes.

Abstract:
We investigate a cosmological model, based on the Salam-Sezgin six-dimensional supergravity theory and on previous work by Anchordoqui, Goldberg, Nawata, and Nu\~nez. Assuming a period of warm inflation, we show that it is possible to extend the evolution of the model back in time, to include the inflationary period, thus unifying inflation, dark matter, and dark energy within a single framework. Like the previous authors, we were not able to obtain the full dark matter content of the Universe from the Salam-Sezgin scalar fields. However, even if only partially successful, this work shows that present-day theories, based on superstrings and supergravity, may eventually lead to a comprehensive modelling of the evolution of the Universe. We find that the gravitational-wave spectrum of the model has a non-constant negative slope in the frequency range 10^(-15)-10^6 rad/s, and that, unlike standard (cold) inflation models, it shows no structure in the MHz/GHz range of frequencies.

Abstract:
We review on the viability of $F(R)$-gravity. We show that recent cosmic acceleration, radiation/matter-dominated epoch and inflation could be realized in the framework of $F(R)$-gravity in the unified way. For some classes of $F(R)$-gravity, the correction to the Newton law is extremely small and there is no so-called matter instability (the very heavy positive mass for additional scalar degree of freedom is generated). The reconstruction program in modified gravity is also reviewed and it is demonstrated that {\it any} time-evolution of the universe expansion could be realized in $F(R)$-gravity. Special attention is paid to modified gravity which unifies inflation with cosmic acceleration and passes local tests. It turns out that such a theory may describe also dark matter.

Abstract:
We consider cosmological inflation driven by the rolling tachyon in the context of the braneworld scenario. We show that sufficient inflation consistent with the observational constraints can be achieved for well defined upper limits on the five-dimensional mass scale, string mass scale and the string coupling for the bosonic string.

Abstract:
Empirical theories of Dark Matter like MOND gravity and of Dark Energy like f(R) gravity were motivated by astronomical data. But could these theories be branches rooted from a more general hence natural framework? Here we propose the natural Lagrangian of such a framework based on simple dimensional analysis and co-variant symmetry requirements, and explore various outcomes in a top-down fashion. Our framework preserves the co-variant formulation of GR, but allows the expanding physical metric be bent by a single new species of Dark Fluid flowing in space-time. Its non-uniform stress tensor and current vector are simply functions of a vector field of variable norm, resembling the 4-vector electromagnetic potential description for the photon fluid, but is dark (e.g., by very early decoupling from the baryon-radiation fluid). The Dark Fluid framework naturally branches into a continuous spectrum of theories with Dark Energy and Dark Matter effects, including the $f(R)$ gravity, TeVeS-like theories, Einstein-Aether and $\nu\Lambda$ theories as limiting cases. When the vector field degenerates into a pure Higgs-like scalar field, we obtain the physics for inflaton and quintessence. In this broad setting we emphasize the non-constant dynamical field behind the cosmological constant effect, and highlight plausible corrections beyond the classical MOND predictions. Choices of parameters can be made to pass BBN, PPN, and causality constraints. The Dark Fluid is inspired to unify/simplify the astronomically successful ingredients of previous constructions: the desired effects of inflaton plus quintessence plus Cold DM particle fields or MOND-like scalar field(s) are shown largely achievable by one vector field only.

Abstract:
Using the fluid representation, we formulate the conditions for the appearance of all four types finite-time future singularity in modified gravity in accelerating FRW universe. It stressed that number of standard quintessence/phantom DE theories (including scalar, fluid, DBI ones, etc) brings the accelerating cosmology to future singularity precisely in the same way as singular modified gravity DE. The viable non-singular modified gravity unifying the early-time inflation with late-time acceleration is considered. It is shown that adding such non-singular theory to another realistic singular modified gravity which has the accelerating solution with future singularity may cure the singularity of resulting combined model. This universal scenario may be naturally applied to standard singular DE models as well as to inflationary theories with initial singularity. This suggests the additional fundamental reasoning for modification of General Relativity.

Abstract:
We examine the possibility of achieving quintessential inflation, where the same field serves as both inflaton and quintessence, in the context of a five-dimensional braneworld. Braneworld cosmology provides an appropriate environment as it permits inflation with much steeper potentials than the conventional scenario, which is favourable to a late-time quintessence. We explore a wide space of models, together with contemporary observational data, to determine in which contexts such a picture is possible. We find that such a scenario, although attractive, is in fact impossible to achieve for the potentials studied due to the restrictiveness of current data.

Abstract:
The curvaton was introduced recently as a distinct inflationary mechanism for generating adiabatic density perturbations. Implicit in that scenario is that the curvaton offers a new mechanism for reheating after inflation, as it is a form of energy density not diluted by the inflationary expansion. We consider curvaton reheating in the context of a braneworld inflation model, {\em steep inflation}, which features a novel use of the braneworld to give a new mechanism for ending inflation. The original steep inflation model featured reheating by gravitational particle production, but the inefficiency of that process brings observational difficulties. We demonstrate here that the phenomenology of steep inflation is much improved by curvaton reheating.