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 Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1086/306302 Abstract: The bright Magellanic irregular galaxy NGC 4449 was observed during the Astro-2 Space Shuttle mission by the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT), which obtained images of a ~40 arcmin field centered on the galaxy in two broad far-ultraviolet (FUV) bands centered at 1520 A and 1620 A, with 3 arcsec - 5 arcsec spatial resolution. Together with H-alpha and H-beta fluxes from ground-based Fabry-Perot images, these data are analyzed in order to explore the recent star formation history of NGC 4449. Maps of the flux ratios H-alpha/FUV and FUV/blue continuum are presented and interpreted using evolutionary synthesis models. Photometry is presented both for 22 apertures containing large OB complexes and for 57 small apertures containing compact FUV-emitting knots. The OB complexes along the northern edge of the visible system have high H-alpha/FUV ratios, and thus appear to be more dominated by the current generation of stars than are other parts of the galaxy. However, young sources do exist elsewhere and are particularly conspicuous along the bar. The small aperture analysis shows three candidate regions for sequential star formation. Surface brightness profiles are consistent with an exponential disk in both the FUV and the optical continuum.
 Christian Theis Physics , 1999, Abstract: (abridged) Several N-body methods were combined in order to develop a method for the determination of the parameters of interacting galaxies. This method has been applied to the HI distribution of NGC4449. In a first step the fast restricted N-body models were used to confine a region in parameter space reproducing the main observational features. In a second step a genetic algorithm is introduced which allows for an automated search in parameter space as well as for a uniqueness test of special parameter sets. Using artificial data I show that the genetic algorithm reliably recovers orbital parameters. In the third step the results of the restricted N-body models are compared with detailed self-consistent N-body simulations. In the case of NGC4449 the applicability of the simple restricted N-body calculations is demonstrated. NGC4449 is an active star-forming dwarf galaxy of Magellanic type. From radio observations van Woerden et al. (1975) found an extended HI-halo around NGC4449 which is at least a factor of 10 larger than the optical diameter. More recently, Bajaja et al. (1994) and Hunter et al. (1998) discerned details in the HI-halo: a disc-like feature around the center of NGC4449 and a lopsided arm structure. In a series of simulations it is demonstrated that the main features can be obtained by a gravitational interaction between NGC4449 and DDO125, another nearby dwarf galaxy. According to these calculations the closest approach between both galaxies happened 350 Myr ago at a minimum distance of 25 kpc on a nearly parabolic orbit. In case of the encounter scenario, the dynamical mass of DDO125 should not be smaller than 10% of NGC4449's mass. The origin of this disc is still unclear, but it might be caused by a previous interaction.
 Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1086/368124 Abstract: An analysis of a 29 ksec Chandra ACIS-S observation of the young, Cassiopeia-A like supernova remnant in the irregular galaxy NGC 4449 is presented. The observed 0.5-2.1 keV spectrum reveals the likely presence of several emission lines including O VIII at 0.65 keV and 0.77 keV, Ne X at 1.05 keV, Mg XI at 1.5 keV, and Si XIII at 1.85 keV. From the observed spectrum, we derive an N_H = 10^21 cm^-2 and an X-ray temperature of T = 9 * 10^6 K. A non-equilibrium ionization fit to the spectrum suggests an overabundance of oxygen around 20 times solar, consistent with the remnant's UV and optical emission-line properties. We discuss tht remnant's approximate X-ray derived elemental abundances and compare its X-ray spectrum and luminosity to other oxygen-rich remnants.
 Physics , 1997, DOI: 10.1086/118384 Abstract: NGC 4449 is an irregular galaxy with a moderately high star formation activity. The massive stars in NGC 4449 have given rise to many bright HII regions, superbubbles, supergiant shells, and "chimney-like" radial filaments. ROSAT X-ray observations of NGC 4449 have revealed four point-like sources and a wide-spread diffuse emission. The spectral properties of the diffuse component suggest that the emission originates from hot interstellar gas. We have compared deep ground-based H-alpha images with the X-ray images of NGC 4449 to determine the relationship between the hot (10^6 K) and the warm (10^4 K) components of the interstellar gas. We have also used an archival Hubble Space Telescope WFPC2 image of NGC 4449 taken through the F606W filter to examine the massive stellar content of the X-ray-emission regions. We find that hot interstellar gas exists in (1) active star forming regions, including the giant H II region CM 16, (2) probable outflows from star forming regions, and (3) the supergiant shell SGS2. The X-ray data have been used to derive the rms electron density, mass, and thermal energy of the hot interior of SGS2. Finally we discuss the origin of SGS2 and implications of the detection of diffuse X-rays in irregular galaxies.
 Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stu1107 Abstract: We report low frequency observations of Wolf-Rayet galaxies, NGC 4214 and NGC 4449 at 610, 325 and 150 MHz, using the Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope (GMRT). We detect diffuse extended emission from NGC 4214 at and NGC 4449. NGC 4449 is observed to be five times more radio luminous than NGC 4214, indicating vigorous star formation. We estimate synchrotron spectral index after separating the thermal free-free emission and obtain $\alpha_{nt}=-0.63\pm0.04$ (S$\propto\nu^{\alpha_{nt}}$) for NGC 4214 and $-0.49\pm0.02$ for NGC 4449. About $22\%$ of the total radio emission from NGC 4214 and $\sim 9\%$ from NGC 4449 at 610 MHz is thermal in origin. We also study the spectra of two compact star-forming regions in NGC 4214 from 325 MHz to 15 GHz and obtain $\alpha_{nt}=-0.32\pm0.02$ for NGC 4214-I and $\alpha_{nt}=-0.94\pm0.12$ for NGC 4214-II. The luminosities of these star-forming regions ($\sim 10^{19}\rm W~ Hz^{-1}$) appear to be similar to those in circumnuclear rings in normal disk galaxies observed with similar linear resolution. We detect the supernova remnant SNR J1228+441 in NGC 4449 and estimate the spectral index of the emission between 325 and 610 MHz to be $-1.8$ in the epoch 2008-2009. The galaxies follow the radio-FIR correlation slopes suggesting that star formation in Wolf - Rayet galaxies, which are low-metallicity systems, are similar to that of normal disk galaxies.
 Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/741/2/86 Abstract: We present 23 candidate X-ray binaries with luminosities down to 1.8x10^36 erg/s, in the nearby starburst galaxy NGC 4449, from observations totaling 105 ksec taken with the ACIS-S instrument on the Chandra Space Telescope. We determine count rates, luminosities, and colors for each source, and perform spectral fits for sources with sufficient counts. We also compile a new catalog of 129 compact star clusters in NGC 4449 from high resolution, multi-band optical images taken with the Hubble Space Telescope, doubling the number of clusters known in this galaxy. The UBVI,Ha luminosities of each cluster are compared with predictions from stellar evolution models to estimate their ages and masses. We find strong evidence for a population of very young massive, black-hole binaries, which comprise nearly 50% of the detected X-ray binaries in NGC 4449. Approximately a third of these remain within their parent star clusters, which formed t < 6-8 Myr ago, while others have likely been ejected from their parent clusters. We also find evidence for a population of somewhat older X-ray binaries, including both supergiant and Be-binaries, which appear to be associated with somewhat older t ~ 100-400 Myr star clusters, and one X-ray binary in an ancient (t ~ 10 Gyr) globular cluster. Our results suggest that detailed information on star clusters can significantly improve constraints on X-ray binary populations in star-forming galaxies.
 Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1086/318613 Abstract: We examine the star clusters in the irregular galaxy NGC 4449. We use a near-infrared spectrum and broad-band images taken with the HST to place a limit of 8--15 Myrs on the age of the bright central ojbect in NGC 4449. Its luminosity and size suggest that it is comparable to young super star clusters. However, there is a peculiar nucleated-bar structure at the center of this star cluster, and we suggest that this structure is debris from the interaction that has produced the counter-rotating gas systems and extended gas streamers in the galaxy. From the images we identify 60 other candidate compact star clusters in NGC 4449. Fourteen of these could be background elliptical galaxies or old globular star clusters. Of the star clusters, three, in addition to the central object, are potentially super star clusters, and many others are comparable to the populous clusters found in the LMC. The star clusters span a large range in ages with no obvious peak in cluster formation that might be attributed to the interaction that the galaxy has experienced.
 Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1086/319415 Abstract: We have obtained 1-2 A resolution optical Echellette spectra of the nuclear star cluster in the nearby starburst galaxy NGC 4449. The light is clearly dominated by a very young (6-10 Myr) population of stars. For our age dating, we have used recent population synthesis models to interpret the observed equivalent width of stellar absorption features such as the HI Balmer series and the CaII triplet around 8500 A. We also compare the observed spectrum of the nuclear cluster to synthesized spectra of simple stellar populations of varying ages. All these approaches yield a consistent cluster age. Metallicity estimates based on the relative intensities of various ionization lines yield no evidence for significant enrichment in the center of this low mass galaxy: the metallicity of the nuclear cluster is about one fourth of the solar value, in agreement with independent estimates for the disk material of NGC 4449.
 Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1086/344304 Abstract: A detailed kinematic analysis of ionized gas in the nearby irregular galaxy NGC 4449 is presented. Observations are conducted in the spectral lines of Halpha and [SII]. Our scanning Fabry--Perot interferometric observations are presented from both a global as well as a local perspective. We have analysed the global velocity field, the spatially extended diffuse gaseous component (DIG), the HII region populations, and, furthermore, have determined the rotation curve based on the heliocentric radial velocities of the global Halpha spatial distribution. Our results for NGC 4449 show that the optical velocity field has a decreasing value in radial velocity along the optical bar from NE to SW. The DIG component that permeates the entire galaxy was analysed (up to a limiting surface brightness of ~ 3.165x10^-5 ergs cm\$^-2 s^-1 steradian^-1). We find that the diffuse gas component presents peculiar kinematical features such as abrupt velocity gradients and highly supersonic velocity dispersions (sigma~4 times the values of the nearest HII regions) but that its kinematical and dynamical influence is important on both global and local scales. The optical rotation curve of this nearby irregular shows that the NE sector rotates like a solid body (V_rot~40 km s^-1 at R=2 kpc). For the SW side, our results are not conclusive; the behavior of the gas at those locations is chaotic. We conclude that the origin of such complex kinematics and dynamics is undoubtedly related to the aftermath of an interaction experienced by this galaxy in the past (abridged).
 Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2010.17402.x Abstract: We report on sensitive 1.4-GHz VLBI radio observations of the unusually luminous supernova remnant SNR 4449-1 in the galaxy NGC 4449, which gave us the first well-resolved image of this object. The remnant's radio morphology consists of two approximately parallel bright ridges, suggesting similarities to the barrel shape seen for many older Galactic supernova remnants or possibly to SN 1987A. The angular extent of the remnant is 65 x 40 mas, corresponding to (3.7 x 2.3) x 10^{18} (D/3.8 Mpc) cm. We also present a new, high signal-to-noise optical spectrum. By comparing the remnant's linear size to the maximum velocities measured from optical lines, as well as using constraints from historical images, we conclude that the supernova explosion occurred between ~1905 and 1961, likely around 1940. The age of the remnant is therefore likely ~70 yr. We find that SNR 4449-1's shock wave is likely still interacting with the circumstellar rather than interstellar medium.
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