Abstract:
The possibility that the asymptotic quasi-normal mode (QNM) frequencies can be used to obtain the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy for the Schwarzschild black hole -- commonly referred to as Hod's conjecture -- has received considerable attention. To test this conjecture, using monodromy technique, attempts have been made to analytically compute the asymptotic frequencies for a large class of black hole spacetimes. In an earlier work, two of the current authors computed the high frequency QNMs for scalar perturbations of $(D+2)$ dimensional spherically symmetric, asymptotically flat, single horizon spacetimes with generic power-law singularities. In this work, we extend these results to asymptotically non-flat spacetimes. Unlike the earlier analyses, we treat asymptotically flat and de Sitter spacetimes in a unified manner, while the asymptotic anti-de Sitter spacetimes is considered separately. We obtain master equations for the asymptotic QNM frequency for all the three cases. We show that for all the three cases, the real part of the asymptotic QNM frequency -- in general -- is not proportional to ln(3) thus indicating that the Hod's conjecture may be restrictive.

Abstract:
We provide integral formulae for the ADM mass of asymptotically flat hypersurfaces in Riemannian manifolds with a certain warped product structure in a neighborhood of infinity, thus extending Lam's recent results on Euclidean graphs to this broader context. As applications we exhibit, in any dimension, new classes of manifolds for which versions of the Positive Mass and Riemannian Penrose inequalities hold and discuss a notion of quasi-local mass in this setting. The proof explores a novel connection between the co-vector defining the ADM mass of a hypersurface as above and the Newton tensor associated to its shape operator, which takes place in the presence of an ambient Killing field.

Abstract:
An `effective' quasi-local energy expression, motivated by the (relativistically corrected) Newtonian theory, is introduced in exact GR as the volume integral of all the source terms in the field equation for the Newtonian potential in static spacetimes. In particular, we exhibit a new post-Newtonian correction in the source term in the field equation for the Newtonian gravitational potential. In asymptotically flat spacetimes this expression tends to the ADM energy at the spatial infinity as a {\em monotonically decreasing} set function. We prove its positivity in spherically symmetric spacetimes under certain energy conditions, and that its vanishing characterizes flatness. We argue that any physically acceptable quasi-local energy expression should behave qualitatively like this `effective' energy expression in this limit.

Abstract:
A dynamically preferred quasi-local definition of gravitational energy is given in terms of the Hamiltonian of a `2+2' formulation of general relativity. The energy is well-defined for any compact orientable spatial 2-surface, and depends on the fundamental forms only. The energy is zero for any surface in flat spacetime, and reduces to the Hawking mass in the absence of shear and twist. For asymptotically flat spacetimes, the energy tends to the Bondi mass at null infinity and the \ADM mass at spatial infinity, taking the limit along a foliation parametrised by area radius. The energy is calculated for the Schwarzschild, Reissner-Nordstr\"om and Robertson-Walker solutions, and for plane waves and colliding plane waves. Energy inequalities are discussed, and for static black holes the irreducible mass is obtained on the horizon. Criteria for an adequate definition of quasi-local energy are discussed.

Abstract:
Recent work has shown that the addition of an appropriate covariant boundary term to the gravitational action yields a well-defined variational principle for asymptotically flat spacetimes and thus leads to a natural definition of conserved quantities at spatial infinity. Here we connect such results to other formalisms by showing explicitly i) that for spacetime dimension $d \ge 4$ the canonical form of the above-mentioned covariant action is precisely the ADM action, with the familiar ADM boundary terms and ii) that for $d=4$ the conserved quantities defined by counter-term methods agree precisely with the Ashtekar-Hansen conserved charges at spatial infinity.

Abstract:
In this paper, we investigate the behavior of ADM mass and Einstein-Hilbert functional under the Yamabe flow. Through studying the Yamabe flow by weighted spaces, we show that ADM mass and Einstein-Hilbert functional are well-defined and monotone non-increasing under the Yamabe flow on $n$-dimensional, $n\geq 3$, asymptotically flat manifolds. In the case of dimension $n=3$ or 4, we obtain that the ADM mass is invariant under the Yamabe flow and the Yamabe flow is the gradient flow of Einstein-Hilbert functional on asymptotically flat manifolds

Abstract:
We consider (flat) Cauchy-complete GH spacetimes, i.e., globally hyperbolic flat lorentzian manifolds admitting some Cauchy hypersurface on which the ambient lorentzian metric restricts as a complete riemannian metric. We define a family of such spacetimes - model spacetimes - including four subfamilies: translation spacetimes, Misner spacetimes, unipotent spacetimes, and Cauchy-hyperbolic spacetimes (the last family - undoubtfull the most interesting one - is a generalization of standart spacetimes defined by G. Mess). We prove that, up to finite coverings and (twisted) products by euclidean linear spaces, any Cauchy-complete GH spacetime can be isometrically embedded in a model spacetime, or in a twisted product of a Cauchy-hyperbolic spacetime by flat euclidean torus. We obtain as a corollary the classification of maximal GH spacetimes admitting closed Cauchy hypersurfaces. We also establish the existence of CMC foliations on every model spacetime.

Abstract:
There exists in General Relativity an unambiguous notion of Mass associated to asymptotically flat spacetimes known as the ADM mass. The standard expression for the same is a surface integral over spatial infinity of a linear combination of spatial deriatives of the three metric adapted to a constant time spatial hypersurface evaluated at infinity. In this form however the positivity of this mass formula is not apparent, so in the following an attempt shall be made to bring this functional into a form where it's positivity is evident.

Abstract:
A new local, covariant ``counter-term'' is used to construct a variational principle for asymptotically flat spacetimes in any spacetime dimension $ d \ge 4$. The new counter-term makes direct contact with more familiar background subtraction procedures, but is a local algebraic function of the boundary metric and Ricci curvature. The corresponding action satisfies two important properties required for a proper treatment of semi-classical issues and, in particular, to connect with any dual non-gravitational description of asymptotically flat space. These properties are that 1) the action is finite on-shell and 2) asymptotically flat solutions are stationary points under {\it all} variations preserving asymptotic flatness; i.e., not just under variations of compact support. Our definition of asymptotic flatness is sufficiently general to allow the magentic part of the Weyl tensor to be of the same order as the electric part and thus, for d=4, to have non-vanishing NUT charge. Definitive results are demonstrated when the boundary is either a cylindrical or a hyperbolic (i.e., de Sitter space) representation of spacelike infinity ($i^0$), and partial results are provided for more general representations of $i^0$. For the cylindrical or hyperbolic representations of $i^0$, similar results are also shown to hold for both a counter-term proportional to the square-root of the boundary Ricci scalar and for a more complicated counter-term suggested previously by Kraus, Larsen, and Siebelink. Finally, we show that such actions lead, via a straightforward computation, to conserved quantities at spacelike infinity which agree with, but are more general than, the usual (e.g., ADM) results.

Abstract:
The general metric for conformally flat stationary cyclic symmetric noncircular spacetimes is explicitly given. In spite of the complexity introduced by the inclusion of noncircular contributions, the related metric is derived via the full integration of the conformal flatness constraints. It is also shown that the conditions for the existence of a rotation axis (axisymmetry) are the same ones which restrict the above class of spacetimes to be static. As a consequence, a known theorem by Collinson is just part of a more general result: any conformally flat stationary cyclic symmetric spacetime, even a noncircular one, is additionally axisymmetric if and only if it is also static. Since recent astrophysical motivations point in the direction of considering noncircular configurations to describe magnetized neutron stars, the above results seem to be relevant in this context.