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Resonant structure in the disks of spiral galaxies, using phase-reversals in streaming motions from 2D Hα Fabry-Perot spectroscopy  [PDF]
Joan Font,John E. Beckman,Beno?t Epinat,Kambiz Fathi,Leonel Gutiérrez,Olivier Hernandez
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/741/1/L14
Abstract: In this article we introduce a technique for finding resonance radii in a disk galaxy. We use a two-dimensional velocity field in H{\alpha} emission obtained with Fabry-Perot interferometry, derive the classical rotation curve, and subtract it off, leaving a residual velocity map. As the streaming motions should reverse sign at corotation, we detect these reversals, and plot them in a histogram against galactocentric radius, excluding points where the amplitude of the reversal is smaller than the measurement uncertainty. The histograms show well-defined peaks which we assume to occur at resonance radii, identifying corotations as the most prominent peaks corresponding to the relevant morphological features of the galaxy (notably bars and spiral arm systems). We compare our results with published measurements on the same galaxies using other methods and different types of data.
Lopsidedness in WHISP galaxies: I. Rotation curves and kinematic lopsidedness  [PDF]
J. van Eymeren,E. Juette,C. J. Jog,Y. Stein,R. -J. Dettmar
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201016177
Abstract: The frequently observed lopsidedness of the distribution of stars and gas in disc galaxies is still considered as a major problem in galaxy dynamics. It is even discussed as an imprint of the formation history of discs and the evolution of baryons in dark matter haloes. Here, we analyse a selected sample of 70 galaxies from the Westerbork HI Survey of Spiral and Irregular Galaxies. The HI data allow us to follow the morphology and the kinematics out to very large radii. In the present paper, we present the rotation curves and study the kinematic asymmetry. We extract the rotation curves of receding and approaching sides separately and show that the kinematic behaviour of disc galaxies can be classified by five different types: symmetric velocity fields where the rotation curves of receding and approaching sides are almost identical; global distortions where the rotation velocities of receding and approaching side have an offset which is constant with radius; local distortions which lead to large deviations in the inner and negligible deviations in the outer parts (and vice versa); and distortions which split the galaxies into two kinematic systems, visible in the different behaviour of the rotation curves of receding and approaching sides, which leads to a crossing and a change in side. The kinematic lopsidedness is measured from the maximum rotation velocities, averaged over the plateau of the rotation curves. This gives a good estimate of global lopsidedness in the outer parts of the sample galaxies. We find that the mean value of the perturbation parameter denoting the lopsided potential as obtained from the kinematic data is 0.056. 36% of all sample galaxies are globally lopsided, which can be interpreted as the disc responding to a halo that was distorted by a tidal encounter. In Paper II, we study the morphological lopsidedness for the same sample of galaxies.
The morphological dependent Tully-Fisher relation of spiral galaxies  [PDF]
Shiyin Shen,Caihong Wang,Ruixiang Chang,Zhengyi Shao,Jinliang Hou,Chenggang Shu
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/705/2/1496
Abstract: The Tully-Fisher relation of spiral galaxies shows notable dependence on morphological types, with earlier type spirals having systematically lower luminosity at fixed maximum rotation velocity $V_{max}$. This decrement of luminosity is more significant in shorter wavelengths. By modeling the rotation curve and stellar population of different morphological type spiral galaxies in combination, we find the $V_{max}$ of spiral galaxies is weakly dependent on the morphological type, whereas the difference of the stellar population originating from the bulge disk composition effect mainly account for the morphological type dependence of the Tully-Fisher relation.
Generalizing the MOND description of rotation curves  [PDF]
Sandro S. e Costa,R. Opher
Physics , 2001,
Abstract: We present new mathematical alternatives for explaining rotation curves of spiral galaxies in the MOND context. For given total masses, it is shown that various mathematical alternatives to MOND, while predicting flat rotation curves for large galactic radii, predict curves with different peculiar features for smaller radii. They are thus testable against observational data.
The DiskMass Survey. VI. Gas and stellar kinematics in spiral galaxies from PPak integral-field spectroscopy  [PDF]
Thomas P. K. Martinsson,Marc A. W. Verheijen,Kyle B. Westfall,Matthew A. Bershady,Andrew Schechtman-Rook,David R. Andersen,Rob A. Swaters
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201220515
Abstract: We present ionized-gas (OIII) and stellar kinematics (velocities and velocity dispersions) for 30 nearly face-on spiral galaxies out to as much as three disk scale lengths (h_R). These data have been derived from PPak IFU spectroscopy (4980-5370A), observed at a mean resolution of R=7700 (sigma_inst=17km/s). These data are a fundamental product of our survey and will be used in companion papers to, e.g., derive the detailed (baryonic+dark) mass budget of each galaxy in our sample. Our presentation provides a comprehensive description of the observing strategy, data reduction, and analysis. Along with a clear presentation of the data, we demonstrate: (1) The OIII and stellar rotation curves exhibit a clear signature of asymmetric drift with a rotation difference that is 11% of the maximum rotation speed of the galaxy disk, comparable to measurements in the solar neighborhood in the Milky Way. (2) The e-folding length of the stellar velocity dispersion is two times h_R on average, as expected for a disk with a constant scale height and mass-to-light ratio, with a scatter that is notably smaller for massive, high-surface-brightness disks in the most luminous galaxies. (3) At radii larger than 1.5 h_R, the stellar velocity dispersion tends to decline slower than the best-fitting exponential function, which may be due to an increase in the disk mass-to-light ratio, disk flaring, or disk heating by the dark-matter halo. (4) A strong correlation exists between the central vertical stellar velocity dispersion of the disks and their circular rotational speed at 2.2 h_R, with a zero point indicating that galaxy disks are submaximal. Moreover, weak but consistent correlations exist such that disks with a fainter central surface brightness in bluer and less luminous galaxies of later morphological types are kinematically colder with respect to their rotational velocities.
On the galaxy spiral arms' nature as revealed by rotation frequencies  [PDF]
Santi Roca-Fàbrega,Octavio Valenzuela,Francesca Figueras,Mercè Romero-Gómez,Hector Velázquez,Teresa Antoja,Bárbara Pichardo
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt643
Abstract: High resolution N-body simulations using different codes and initial condition techniques reveal two different behaviours for the rotation frequency of transient spiral arms like structures. Whereas unbarred disks present spiral arms nearly corotatingwith disk particles, strong barred models (bulged or bulge-less) quickly develop a bar-spiral structure dominant in density, with a pattern speed almost constant in radius. As the bar strength decreases the arm departs from bar rigid rotation and behaves similar to the unbarred case. In strong barred models we detect in the frequency space other subdominant and slower modes at large radii, in agreement with previous studies, however we also detect them in the configuration space. We propose that the distinctive behaviour of the dominant spiral modes can be exploited in order to constraint the nature of Galactic spiral arms by the astrometric survey GAIA and by 2-D spectroscopic surveys like CALIFA and MANGA in external galaxies.
Extended HI spiral structure and the figure rotation of triaxial dark halos  [PDF]
Kenji Bekki,Kenneth C. Freeman
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1086/342262
Abstract: The HI disk of the blue compact dwarf (BCD) galaxy NGC 2915 extends to 22 optical scalelengths and shows spiral arms reaching far beyond the optical component. None of the previous theories for spiral structure provide likely explanations for these very extended spiral arms. Our numerical simulations first demonstrate that such large spiral arms can form in an extended gas disk embedded in a massive triaxial dark matter halo with slow figure rotation, through the strong gravitational torque of the rotating halo. We then show that the detailed morphological properties of the developed spirals and rings depend strongly on the pattern speed of the figure rotation, the shape of the triaxial halo, and the inclination of the disk with respect to the plane including the triaxial halo's long and middle axes. These results strongly suggest that the dark matter halo of NGC 2915 is triaxial and has figure rotation. Based on these results, we also suggest that dynamical effects of triaxial halos with figure rotation are important in various aspect of galaxy formation and evolution, such as formation of polar ring galaxies, excitation of non-axisymmetric structures in low surface-brightness galaxies, and gas fueling to the central starburst regions of BCDs.
Rotation Curves of Spiral Galaxies  [PDF]
Yoshiaki Sofue,Vera Rubin
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1146/annurev.astro.39.1.137
Abstract: Rotation curves of spiral galaxies are the major tool for determining the distribution of mass in spiral galaxies. They provide fundamental information for understanding the dynamics, evolution and formation of spiral galaxies. We describe various methods to derive rotation curves, and review the results obtained. We discuss the basic characteristics of observed rotation curves in relation to various galaxy properties, such as Hubble type, structure, activity, and environment.
Extensive spiral structure and corotation resonance  [PDF]
Blaise Canzian
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1086/305912
Abstract: Spiral density wave theories demand that grand design spiral structure be bounded, at most, between the inner and outer Lindblad resonances of the spiral pattern. The corotation resonance lies between the outer and inner Lindblad resonances. The locations of the resonances are at radii whose ratios to each other are rather independent of the shape of the rotation curve. The measured ratio of outer to inner extent of spiral structure for a given spiral galaxy can be compared to the standard ratio of corotation to inner Lindblad resonance radius. In the case that the measured ratio far exceeds the standard ratio, it is likely that the corotation resonance is within the bright optical disk. Studying such galaxies can teach us how the action of resonances sculpts the appearance of spiral disks. This paper reports observations of 140 disk galaxies, leading to resonance ratio tests for 109 qualified spirals. It lists candidates that have a good chance of having the corotation resonance radius within the bright optical disk.
Rotation curves and metallicity gradients from HII regions in spiral galaxies  [PDF]
I. Marquez,J. Masegosa,M. Moles,J. Varela,D. Bettoni,G. Galletta
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:20021036
Abstract: In this paper we study long slit spectra in the region of H$\alpha$ emission line of a sample of 111 spiral galaxies with recognizable and well defined spiral morphology and with a well determined environmental status, ranging from isolation to non-disruptive interaction with satellites or companions. The form and properties of the rotation curves are considered as a function of the isolation degree, morphological type and luminosity. The line ratios are used to estimate the metallicity of all the detected HII regions, thus producing a composite metallicity profile for different types of spirals. We have found that isolated galaxies tend to be of later types and lower luminosity than the interacting galaxies. The outer parts of the rotation curves of isolated galaxies tend to be flatter than in interacting galaxies, but they show similar relations between global parameters. The scatter of the Tully-Fisher relation defined by isolated galaxies is significantly lower than that of interacting galaxies. The [NII]/H$\alpha$ ratios, used as metallicity indicator, show a clear trend between Z and morphological type, t, with earlier spirals showing larger ratios; this trend is tighter when instead of t the gradient of the inner rotation curve, G, is used; no trend is found with the interaction status. The Z-gradient of the disks depends on the type, being almost flat for early spirals, and increasing for later types. The [NII]/H$\alpha$ ratios measured for disk HII regions of interacting galaxies are higher than for normal/isolated objects, even if all the galaxy families present similar distributions of H$\alpha$ Equivalent Width.
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