Abstract:
$G_2$-QCD, in which the exceptional Lie group $G_2$ replaces the $SU(3)$ gauge group of QCD, does not suffer from a fermion sign problem. It can therefore be simulated also at comparatively low temperatures and high densities on the lattice, which hence allows to map out the phase diagram of this QCD-like theory. We briefly review some of our previous results from such finite density simulations to then present further evidence for a first-order transition to what might be called $G_2$-nuclear matter. In order to isolate diquark condensation effects, we introduce simulations with Majorana fermions and diquark sources. This allows to disentangle states in the spectrum that are connected by charge conjugation. We discuss chiral symmetry in the presence of diquark sources and present first results from our ongoing large-scale simulations.

Abstract:
We investigate the behavior of the chiral condensate in lattice QCD at finite temperature and finite chemical potential. The study was done using two flavors of light quarks and with a series of $\beta$ and $ma$ at the lattice size $24\times12^{2}\times6$. The calculation was done in the Taylar expansion formalism. We are able to calculate the first and second order derivatives of $\langle\bar{\psi}\psi\rangle$ in both isoscalar and isovector channels. With the first derivatives being small, we find that the second derivatives are sizable close to the phase transition and the magnitude of $\bar{\psi}\psi$ decreases under the influence of finite chemical potential in both channels.

Abstract:
We simulate 2-flavour lattice QCD at finite isospin chemical potential mu_I, for temperatures close to the finite temperature transition from hadronic matter to a quark-gluon plasma. The mu_I dependence of the transition coupling is observed and used to estimate the decrease in the transition temperature with increasing mu_I. These simulations are performed on an 8^3 times 4 lattice at 3 different quark masses. Our estimate of the magnitude of the fluctuations of the phase of the fermion determinant at small quark-number chemical potential mu, suggest that the position of the small mu and small mu_I transitions should be the same for mu_I=2mu, and we argue that the nature of these transitions should be the same. For all mu_I < m_pi the smoothness of these transitions and the values of the Binder cumulant B_4, indicate that these transitions are mere crossovers, and show no sign of the expected critical endpoint. For mu_I > m_pi and a small isospin (I_3) breaking term lambda, we do find evidence of a critical endpoint which would indicate that, for lambda=0, there is a tricritical point on the phase boundary where the pion condensate evaporates, where this phase transition changes from second to first order.

Abstract:
we discuss recent results for the phase transition in finite-temperature qcd from numerical (monte carlo) simulations of the lattice-regularized theory. emphasis is given to the case of two degenerate light-quark flavors. the order of the transition in this case, which could have cosmological implications, has not yet been established.

Abstract:
We discuss recent results for the phase transition in finite-temperature QCD from numerical (Monte Carlo) simulations of the lattice-regularized theory. Emphasis is given to the case of two degenerate light-quark flavors. The order of the transition in this case, which could have cosmological implications, has not yet been established.

Abstract:
We study the finite temperature phase transition of lattice QCD with an irrelevant chiral 4-fermion interaction and two massless quark flavours, on $8^3 \times 4$ and $12^2 \times 24 \times 4$ lattices. The strength of the 4-fermion interaction was reduced to half the minimum value used in previous simulations, to study how the nature of this phase transition depends on this additional interaction. We find that the transition remains first order as the 4-fermion coupling is reduced. Extending our earlier studies indicates that for sufficiently large 4-fermion coupling, the transition is probably second order.

Abstract:
We study the phase structure of QCD at finite temperature and density by numerical simulations on a lattice. The most important point for the numerical study at finite density is treatment of the sign problem. We propose a method to avoid the sign problem, which is based on a cumulant expansion of the complex phase in the density of state method combined with the reweighting method. Using the method, we study the critical point terminating a first order phase transition line in lattice QCD at high temperature and density.

Abstract:
We discuss the nature of the phase transition for lattice QCD at finite temperature and density. We propose a method to calculate the canonical partition function by fixing the total quark number introducing approximations allowed in the low density region. An effective potential as a function of the quark number density is discussed from the canonical partition function. We analyze data obtained in a simulation of two-flavor QCD using p4-improved staggered quarks with bare quark mass $m/T = 0.4$ on a $16^3 \times 4$ lattice. The results suggest that the finite density phase transition at low temperature is of first order.

Abstract:
We present the first results for lattice QCD at finite temperature $T$ and chemical potential $\mu$ with four flavors of Wilson quarks. The calculations are performed using the imaginary chemical potential method at $\kappa=0$, 0.001, 0.15, 0.165, 0.17 and 0.25, where $\kappa$ is the hopping parameter, related to the bare quark mass $m$ and lattice spacing $a$ by $\kappa=1/(2ma+8)$. Such a method allows us to do large scale Monte Carlo simulations at imaginary chemical potential $\mu=i \mu_I$. By analytic continuation of the data with $\mu_I < \pi T/3$ to real values of the chemical potential, we expect at each $\kappa\in [0,\kappa_{chiral}]$, a transition line on the $(\mu, T)$ plane, in a region relevant to the search for quark gluon plasma in heavy-ion collision experiments. The transition is first order at small or large quark mass, and becomes a crossover at intermediate quark mass.

Abstract:
We simulate lattice QCD with 2 flavours of massless quarks on lattices of temporal extent N_t=8, to study the finite temperature transition from hadronic matter to a quark-gluon plasma. A modified action which incorporates an irrelevant chiral 4-fermion interaction is used, which allows simulations at zero quark mass. We obtain excellent fits of the chiral condensates to the magnetizations of a 3-dimensional O(2) spin model on lattices small enough to model the finite size effects. This gives predictions for correlation lengths and chiral susceptibilities from the corresponding spin-model quantities. These are in good agreement with our measurements over the relevant range of parameters. Binder cumulants are measured, but the errors are too large to draw definite conclusions. From the properties of the O(2) spin model on the relatively small lattices with which we fit our `data', we can see why earlier attempts to fit staggered lattice data to leading-order infinite-volume scaling functions, as well as finite size scaling studies, failed and led to erroneous conclusions.