Abstract:
The first part of this thesis deals with certain properties of the quantum symmetric and exterior algebras of Type 1 representations of $U_q(g)$ defined by Berenstein and Zwicknagl. We define a notion of a commutative algebra object in a coboundary category, and we prove that the quantum symmetric algebra of a module is the universal commutative algebra generated by that module. That is, the functor assigning to a module its quantum symmetric algebra is left adjoint to a forgetful functor. We also prove a conjecture of Berenstein and Zwicknagl, stating that the quantum symmetric and exterior cubes exhibit the same amount of "collapsing" relative to their classical counterparts. We prove that those quantum exterior algebras that are flat deformations of their classical analogues are Frobenius algebras. We also develop a rigorous framework for discussing continuity and limits of the structures involved as the deformation parameter q varies along the positive real line. The second part deals with quantum analogues of Clifford algebras and their application to the noncommutative geometry of certain quantum homogeneous spaces. We introduce the quantum Clifford algebra through its spinor representation via creation and annihilation operators on one of the flat quantum exterior algebras discussed in the first part. The proof that the spinor representation is irreducible relies on the Frobenius property discussed previously. We use this quantum Clifford algebra to revisit Krahmer's construction of a Dolbeault-Dirac-type operator on a quantized irreducible flag manifold. This operator is of the form $d+d^*$, and we relate $d$ to the boundary operator for the Koszul complex of a certain quantum symmetric algebra, which shows that $d^2=0$. This is a first step toward a Parthasarathy-type formula for the spectrum of the square of the Dirac operator.

Abstract:
We give several explicit examples of quantum cluster algebra structures, as introduced by Berenstein and Zelevinsky, on quantized coordinate rings of partial flag varieties and their associated unipotent radicals. These structures are shown to be quantizations of the cluster algebra structures found on the corresponding classical objects by Geiss, Leclerc and Schroer, whose work generalizes that of several other authors. We also exhibit quantum cluster algebra structures on the quantized enveloping algebras of the Lie algebras of the unipotent radicals.

Abstract:
Let $\mathfrak{g}$ be a semi-simple Lie algebra with fixed root system, and $U_q(\mathfrak{g})$ the quantization of its universal enveloping algebra. Let $\mathcal{S}$ be a subset of the simple roots of $\mathfrak{g}$. We show that the defining relations for $U_q(\mathfrak{g})$ can be slightly modified in such a way that the resulting algebra $U_q(\mathfrak{g};\mathcal{S})$ allows a homomorphism onto (an extension of) the algebra $\mathrm{Pol}(\mathbb{G}_q/\mathbb{K}_{\mathcal{S},q})$ of functions on the quantum flag manifold $\mathbb{G}_q/\mathbb{K}_{\mathcal{S},q}$ corresponding to $\mathcal{S}$. Moreover, this homomorphism is equivariant with respect to a natural adjoint action of $U_q(\mathfrak{g})$ on $U_q(\mathfrak{g};\mathcal{S})$ and the standard action of $U_q(\mathfrak{g})$ on $Pol(\mathbb{G}_q/\mathbb{K}_{\mathcal{S},q})$.

Abstract:
We discuss relations of Vafa's quantum cohomology with Floer's homology theory, introduce equivariant quantum cohomology, formulate some conjectures about its general properties and, on the basis of these conjectures, compute quantum cohomology algebras of the flag manifolds. The answer turns out to coincide with the algebra of regular functions on an invariant lagrangian variety of a Toda lattice.

Abstract:
We describe a construction of Gromov-Witten invariants for flag varieties and use it to give a presentation for the quantum cohomology ring, by extending the ideas used by Bertram in the case of Grassmannians. This provides a proof for the conjecture of Givental and Kim in [GK].

Abstract:
The (small) quantum cohomology ring of a flag manifold F encodes enumerative geometry of rational curves on F. We give a proof of the presentation of the ring and of a quantum Giambelli formula, which is more direct and geometric than the previously known proof. Furthermore, this proof gives a relationship between quantum Schubert polynomials and universal Schubert polynomials, which arise in a degeneracy locus formula of Fulton.

Abstract:
We introduce $C^*$-algebras associated to the foliation structure of a quantum flag manifold. We use these to construct $SL_q(3,\mathbb{C})$-equivariant Fredholm modules for the full quantum flag manifold $X_q = SU_q(3)/T$ of $SU_q(3)$, based on an analytical version of the Bernstein-Gelfand-Gelfand complex. As a consequence we deduce that the flag manifold $ X_q $ satisfies Poincar\'e duality in equivariant $ KK $-theory. Moreover, we show that the Baum-Connes conjecture with trivial coefficients holds for the discrete quantum group dual to $SU_q(3)$.

Abstract:
We give elementary geometric proofs of the main theorems about the (small) quantum cohomology of partial flag varieties SL(n)/P, including the quantum Pieri and quantum Giambelli formulas and the presentation.

Abstract:
We compute the quantum cohomology rings of the partial flag manifolds F_{n_1\cdots n_k}=U(n)/(U(n_1)\times \cdots \times U(n_k)). The inductive computation uses the idea of Givental and Kim. Also we define a notion of the vertical quantum cohomology ring of the algebraic bundle. For the flag bundle F_{n_1\cdots n_k}(E) associated with the vector bundle E this ring is found.

Abstract:
These are some brief notes on the translation from Razborov's recently-developed notion of flag algebra into the lexicon of functions and measures on certain abstract Cantor spaces (totally disconnected compact metric spaces).