Abstract:
An introduction is given to collective modes in layered, high Tc superconductors. An experimental demonstration is treated of the mechanism proposed by Anderson whereby photons travelling inside the superconductor become massive, when the U(1) gauge symmetry is broken in the superconductor to which the photons are coupled. Using the Ferrell-Tinkham sumrule the photon mass is shown to have a simple relation to the spectral weight of the condensate. Various forms of Josephson plasmons can exist in single-layer, and bi-layecuprates. In the bi-layer cuprates a transverse optical plasma mode can be observed as a peak in the c-axis optical conductivity. This mode appears as a consequence of the existence of two different intrinsic Josephson couplings between the CuO2 layers. It is strongly related to a collective oscillation corresponding to small fluctuations of the relative phases of the two condensates, which has been predicted in 1966 by A.J. Leggett for superconductors with two bands of charge carriers. A description is given of optical data of the high Tc cuprates demonstrating the presence of these and similar collective modes.

Abstract:
A detailed calculation is presented of the dielectric function in superconducttors consisting of two Josephson coupled superconducting layers per unit cell, taking into account the effect of finite compressibility of the electron fluid. From the model it follows, that two longitudinal, and one transverse optical Josephson plasma resonance exist in these materials, for electric field polarization perpendicular to the planes. The latter mode appears as a resonance in the transverse dielectric function, and it couples directly to the electrical field vector of infrared radiation. A shift of all plasma frequencies, and a reduction of the intensity of the transverse optical Josephson plasmon is shown to result from the finite compressibility of the electron fluid.

Abstract:
In this work, we generalize the theory of localized surface plasmons to the case of high-Tc cuprate superconductors, spatially confined in the form of small spherical particles. At variance from ordinary metals, cuprate superconductors are characterized by a low-energy bulk excitation known as the Josephson plasma wave (JPW), arising from interlayer tunneling of the condensate along the c-axis. The effect of the JPW is revealed in a characteristic spectrum of surface excitations, which we call Josephson surface plasmons. Our results, which apply to any material with a strongly anisotropic electromagnetic response, are worked out in detail for the case of multilayered superconductors supporting both low-frequency (acoustic) and transverse-optical JPW. Spatial confinement of the Josephson plasma waves may represent a new degree of freedom to engineer their frequencies and to explore the link between interlayer tunnelling and high-Tc superconductivity.

Abstract:
Using a conventional BCS -- Fermi liquid model we calculate the c-axis optical reflectivity of the layered high temperature cuprate superconductors by obtaining the finite temperature dynamical dielectric function in a microscopic self-consistent gauge invariant formalism. We get good semi-quantitative agreement with all the existing experimental data by using the measured normal state $dc$ resistivities as the input parameters in obtaining the c-axis hopping amplitude and the normal state level broadening in our microscopic calculation.

Abstract:
We study the optical properties of crystals with spatial dispersion and show that the usual Fresnel approach becomes invalid near frequencies where the group velocity of the wave packets inside the crystal vanishes. Near these special frequencies the reflectivity depends on the atomic structure of the crystal provided that disorder and dissipation are very low. This is demonstrated explicitly by a detailed study of layered superconductors with identical or two different alternating junctions in the frequency range near the Josephson plasma resonance. Accounting for both inductive and charge coupling of the intrinsic junctions, we show that multiple modes are excited inside the crystal by the incident light, determine their relative amplitude by the microscopic calculation of the additional boundary conditions and finally obtain the reflectivity. Spatial dispersion also provides a novel method to stop light pulses, which has possible applications for quantum information processing and the artificial creation of event horizons in a solid.

Abstract:
We derive the transmission coefficient, $T(\omega)$, for grazing incidence of crystals with spatial dispersion accounting for the excitation of multiple modes with different wave vectors ${\bf k}$ for a given frequency $\omega$. The generalization of the Fresnel formulas contains the refraction indices of these modes as determined by the dielectric function $\epsilon(\omega,{\bf k})$. Near frequencies $\omega_e$, where the group velocity vanishes, $T(\omega)$ depends also on an additional parameter determined by the crystal microstructure. The transmission $T$ is significantly suppressed, if one of the excited modes is decaying into the crystal. We derive these features microscopically for the Josephson plasma resonance in layered superconductors.

Abstract:
Using infrared spectroscopy at grazing angle of incidence we study the electrodynamical properties of high temperature superconductors. We review some of our experiments where transverse polarized light is absorbed by longitudinal optical modes with their mode of oscillation perpendicular to the plane. This is particularly useful for the study of the plasmons and phonons perpendicular to the plane, and allows us to study in detail the c-axis dynamical properties of flux grown single crystals for which usually no samples with large dimensions in the c-direction exist.

Abstract:
We predict the existence of transverse electric (TE) plasmons in bilayer graphene. We find that their plasmonic properties are much more pronounced in bilayer than in monolayer graphene, in a sense that they can get more localized at frequencies just below $\hbar\omega=0.4$~eV for adequate doping values. This is a consequence of the perfectly nested bands in bilayer graphene which are separated by $\sim 0.4$~eV.

Abstract:
We calculate the linear transverse current current response function for graphene at finite temperature and chemical potential. Within the Random Phase Approximation, we then discuss general aspects of transverse plasmons beyond the local response such as their dependence on temperature and on the surrounding dielectric media. We find, e.g., maximal confinement of this mode for a homogeneous dielectric media with refractive index $n\simeq 40$. Confinement can further be enhanced by placing the graphene sheet inside an optical cavity, but there exists a critical width below which no transverse mode can be sustained. For zero doping and finite temperature, there are no well-defined transverse plasmonic excitations in contrast to the longitudinal channel. We also discuss the absorption of electromagnetic radiation in single and double-layer systems for $s$ and $p$ polarizations and point out that the theoretical limit of 50% is reached for $s$-polarized light with incident angle of $\theta\approx89^o$.

Abstract:
We investigate the optical properties of layered structures with graphene at the interface for arbitrary linear polarization at finite temperature including full retardation by working in the Weyl gauge. As a special case, we obtain the full response and the related dielectric function of a layered structure with two interfaces. We apply our results to discuss the longitudinal plasmon spectrum of several single and double layer devices such as systems with finite and zero electronic densities. We further show that a nonhomogeneous dielectric background can shift the relative weight of the in-phase and out-of-phase mode and discuss how the plasmonic mode of the upper layer can be tuned into an acoustic mode with specific sound velocity.