Abstract:
We show that for the case of a many valley host semiconductor an edge channel (EC) related non-local behaviour can persist also in the 3D-regime where the quantum Hall effect (QHE) is already quenched. We demonstrate that the QHE is replaced by conductance fluctuations due to EC backscattering in the contact arms, which leads to a fluctuating current redistribution between a dissipative bulk electron system and a less-dissipative EC-system. Both electron systems are located in different valleys of the band structure. The linear increase of Rxx with the magnetic field is explained by EC-backscattering in the Hall bar

Abstract:
We study the nature of the \nu=5/2 quantum Hall state in wide quantum wells under the mixing of electronic subbands and Landau levels. We introduce a general method to analyze the Moore-Read Pfaffian state and its particle-hole conjugate, the anti-Pfaffian, under periodic boundary conditions in a "quartered" Brillouin zone scheme containing both even and odd numbers of electrons. We examine the rotational quantum numbers on the torus, and show spontaneous breaking of the particle-hole symmetry can be observed in finite-size systems. In the presence of electronic-subband and Landau-level mixing the particle-hole symmetry is broken in such a way that the anti-Pfaffian is unambiguously favored, and becomes more robust in the vicinity of a transition to the compressible phase, in agreement with recent experiments.

Abstract:
We report the observation of developing fractional quantum Hall states at Landau level filling factors $\nu = 1/2$ and 1/4 in electron systems confined to wide GaAs quantum wells with significantly $asymmetric$ charge distributions. The very large electric subband separation and the highly asymmetric charge distribution at which we observe these quantum Hall states, together with the fact that they disappear when the charge distribution is made symmetric, suggest that these are one-component states, possibly described by the Moore-Read Pfaffian wavefunction.

Abstract:
We report an experimental investigation of fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE) at the even-denominator Landau level filling factor $\nu$ = 1/2 in very high quality wide GaAs quantum wells, and at very high magnetic fields up to 45 T. The quasi-two-dimensional electron systems we study are confined to GaAs quantum wells with widths $W$ ranging from 41 to 96 nm and have variable densities in the range of $\simeq 4 \times 10^{11}$ to $\simeq 4 \times 10^{10}$ cm$^{-2}$. We present several experimental phase diagrams for the stability of the $\nu=1/2$ FQHE in these quantum wells. In general, for a given $W$, the 1/2 FQHE is stable in a limited range of intermediate densities where it has a bilayer-like charge distribution; it makes a transition to a compressible phase at low densities and to an insulating phase at high densities. The densities at which the $\nu=1/2$ FQHE is stable are larger for narrower quantum wells. Moreover, even a slight charge distribution asymmetry destabilizes the $\nu=1/2$ FQHE and turns the electron system into a compressible state. We also present a plot of the symmetric-to-antisymmetric subband separation ($\Delta_{SAS}$), which characterizes the inter-layer tunneling, vs density for various $W$. This plot reveals that $\Delta_{SAS}$ at the boundary between the compressible and FQHE phases increases \textit{linearly} with density for all the samples. Finally, we summarize the experimental data in a diagram that takes into account the relative strengths of the inter-layer and intra-layer Coulomb interactions and $\Delta_{SAS}$. We conclude that, consistent with the conclusions of some of the previous studies, the $\nu=1/2$ FQHE observed in wide GaAs quantum wells with symmetric charge distribution is stabilized by a delicate balance between the inter-layer and intra-layer interactions, and is very likely described by a two-component ($\Psi_{311}$) state.

Abstract:
The 3D- and 2D- behaviour of wide parabolic PbTe single quantum wells, which consist of PbTe p-n-p-structures, are studied theoretically and experimentally. A simple model combines the 2D- subband levels and the 3D-Landau levels in order to calculate the density of states in a magnetic field perpendicular to the 2D plane. It is shown that at a channel width of about 300nm on can expect to observe 3D- and 2D-behaviour at the same time. Magnetotransport experiments in selectively contacted Hall bar samples are performed at temperatures down to T = 50 mK and at magnetic fields up to B = 17 T.

Abstract:
We investigate numerically different phases that can occur at half filling in the lowest and the first excited Landau levels in wide-well twodimensional electron systems exposed to a perpendicular magnetic field. Within a twocomponent model that takes into account only the two lowest electronic subbands of the quantum well, we derive a phase diagram that compares favorably with an experimental one by Shabani et al. [Phys. Rev. B 88, 245413 (2013)]. In addition to the compressible composite-fermion Fermi liquid in narrow wells with a substantial subband gap and the incompressible twocomponent (331) Halperin state, we identify in the lowest Landau level a rectangular Wigner crystal occupying the second subband. This crystal may be the origin of the experimentally observed insulating phase in the limit of wide wells and high electronic densities. In the second Landau level, the incompressible Pfaffian state, which occurs in narrow wells and large subband gaps, is also separated by an intermediate region from a large-well limit in which a similar rectangular Wigner crystal in the excited subband is the ground state, as for the lowest Landau level. However, the intermediate region is characterized by an incompressible state that consists of two four-flux Pfaffians in each of the components.

Abstract:
Quasi-two dimensional electron systems exhibit peculiar transport effects depending on their density profiles and temperature. A usual two dimensional electron system is assumed to have a $\delta$ like density distribution along the crystal growth direction. However, once the confining quantum well is sufficiently large, this situation is changed and the density can no longer be assumed as a $\delta$ function. In addition, it is known that the density profile is not a single peaked function, instead can present more than one maxima, depending on the well width. In this work, the electron density distributions in the growth direction considering a variety of wide quantum wells are investigated as function of temperature. We show that, the double peak in the density profile varies from symmetric (similar peak height) to asymmetric while changing the temperature for particular growth parameters. The alternation from symmetric to asymmetric density profiles is known to exhibit intriguing phase transitions and is decisive in defining the properties of the ground state wavefunction in the presence of an external magnetic field, i.e from insulating phases to even denominator fractional quantum Hall states. Here, by solving the temperature and material dependent Schr\"odinger and Poisson equations self-consistently, we found that such a phase transition may elaborated by taking into account direct Coulomb interactions together with temperature.

Abstract:
The evolution of the fractional quantum Hall state at filling 5/2 is studied in density tunable two-dimensional electron systems formed in wide wells in which it is possible to induce a transition from single to two subband occupancy. In 80 and 60 nm wells, the quantum Hall state at 5/2 filling of the lowest subband is observed even when the second subband is occupied. In a 50 nm well the 5/2 state vanishes upon second subband population. We attribute this distinct behavior to the width dependence of the capacitive energy for intersubband charge transfer and of the overlap of the subband probability densities.

Abstract:
We present magneto transport experiments of quasi 3D PbTe wide quantum wells. A plateau-like structure in the Hall resistance is observed, which corresponds to the Shubnikov de Haas oscillations in the same manner as known from the quantum Hall effect. The onsets of plateaux in Rxy do not correspond to 2D filling factors but coincide with the occupation of 3D (bulk-) Landau levels. At the same time a non-local signal is observed which corresponds to the structure in Rxx and Rxy and fulfils exactly the Onsager-Casimir relation (Rij,kl(B) = Rkl,ij(-B)). We explain the behaviour in terms of edge channel transport which is controlled by a permanent backscattering across a system of "percolative EC - loops" in the bulk region. Long range potential fluctuations with an amplitude of the order of the subband splitting are explained to play an essential role in this electron system.

Abstract:
In PbTe wide parabolic quantum wells (WPQW) a plateau-like structure is observed in the Hall resistance, which corresponds to the Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations in the same manner as known from the quantum Hall effect. At the same time a non-local signal is observed which corresponds to the structure in Rxx and Rxy. We find a striking correspondence between a standard quantum Hall system and this quasi 3D WPQW system.