Abstract:
The fluctuation theorem (FT), the first derived consequence of the {\it Chaotic Hypothesis} (CH) of ref. [GC1], can be considered as an extension to arbitrary forcing fields of the fluctuation dissipation theorem (FD) and the corresponding Onsager reciprocity (OR), in a class of reversible nonequilibrium statistical mechanical systems.

Abstract:
Finite thermostats are studied in the context of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics. Entropy production rate has been identified with the mechanical quantity expressed by the phase space contraction rate and the currents have been linked to its derivatives with respect to the parameters measuring the forcing intensities. In some instances Green-Kubo formulae, hence Onsager reciprocity, have been related to the fluctuation theorem. However, mainly when dissipation takes place at the boundary (as in gases or liquids in contact with thermostats), phase space contraction may be independent on some of the forcing parameters or, even in absence of forcing, phase space contraction may not vanish: then the relation with the fluctuation theorem does not seem to apply. On the other hand phase space contraction can be altered by changing the metric on phase space: here this ambiguity is discussed and employed to show that the relation between the fluctuation theorem and Green-Kubo formulae can be extended and is, by far, more general.

Abstract:
In order to derive the reciprocity relations, Onsager formulated a relation between thermal equilibrium fluctuations and relaxation widely known as regression hypothesis. It is shown in the present work how such relation can be extended to finite and isolated classical systems. This extension is derived from the fluctuation-dissipation theorem for the microcanonical ensemble. The results are exemplified with a nonintegrable system in order to motivate possible applications to dynamical systems and statistical mechanics of finite systems.

Abstract:
It is shown that the quantum fluctuation dissipation theorem can be considered as a mathematical formulation in the spectral representation of Onsager hypothesis on the regression of fluctuations in physical systems. It is shown that the quantum fluctuation dissipation theorem can be generalized to an arbitrary stationary state.

Abstract:
Current can be pumped through a closed system by changing parameters (or fields) in time. The Kubo formula allows to distinguish between dissipative and non-dissipative contributions to the current. We obtain a Green function expression and an $S$ matrix formula for the associated terms in the generalized conductance matrix: the "geometric magnetism" term that corresponds to adiabatic transport; and the "Fermi golden rule" term which is responsible to the irreversible absorption of energy. We explain the subtle limit of an infinite system, and demonstrate the consistency with the formulas by Landauer and Buttiker, Pretre and Thomas. We also discuss the generalization of the fluctuation-dissipation relation, and the implications of the Onsager reciprocity.

Abstract:
The diffusive motion of colloidal particles dispersed in a premelting solid is analyzed within the framework of irreversible thermodynamics. We determine the mass diffusion coefficient, thermal diffusion coefficient and Soret coefficient of the particles in the dilute limit, and find good agreement with experimental data. In contrast to liquid suspensions, the unique nature of premelting solids allows us to derive an expression for the Dufour coefficient and independently verify the Onsager reciprocal relation coupling diffusion to the flow of heat.

Abstract:
One of the canons of condensed matter physics is the Onsager Reciprocity principle in systems in which the Hamiltonian commutes with the time-reversal operator. Recent results of measurements of the Nernst coefficient in underdoped YBa_2Cu_30_{6+x}, together with the measurements of the anisotropy of conductivity and the inferred anisotropy of the thermopower, imply that this principle is violated. The probable violation and its temperature dependence are shown to be consistent with the Loop-current phase which has been directly observed in other experiments. The violation is related directly to the magneto-electric symmetry of such a phase in which an applied electric field generates an effective magnetic field at right angle to it and to the order parameter vector, and vice versa.

Abstract:
In this paper we show that Onsager--Machlup time reversal properties of thermodynamic fluctuations and Onsager reciprocity relations for transport coefficients can hold also if the microscopic dynamics is not reversible. This result is based on the explicit construction of a class of conservative models which can be analysed rigorously.

Abstract:
A generalization of the Onsager-Machlup theory from equilibrium to nonequilibrium steady states and its connection with recent fluctuation theorems are discussed for a dragged particle restricted by a harmonic potential in a heat reservoir. Using a functional integral approach, the probability functional for a path is expressed in terms of a Lagrangian function from which an entropy production rate and dissipation functions are introduced, and nonequilibrium thermodynamic relations like the energy conservation law and the second law of thermodynamics are derived. Using this Lagrangian function we establish two nonequilibrium detailed balance relations, which not only lead to a fluctuation theorem for work but also to one related to energy loss by friction. In addition, we carried out the functional integrals for heat explicitly, leading to the extended fluctuation theorem for heat. We also present a simple argument for this extended fluctuation theorem in the long time limit.

Abstract:
Boltzmann equation requires some alternative simpler kinetic model like BGK to replace the collision term. Such a kinetic model which replaces the Boltzmann collision integral should preserve the basic properties and characteristics of the Boltzmann equation and comply with the requirements of non equilibrium thermodynamics. Most of the research in development of kinetic theory based methods have focused more on entropy conditions, stability and ignored the crucial aspect of non equilibrium thermodynamics. The paper presents a new kinetic model formulated based on the principles of non equilibrium thermodynamics. The new kinetic model yields correct transport coefficients and satisfies Onsager's reciprocity relationship. The present work also describes a novel kinetic particle method and gas kinetic scheme based on this linkage of non-equilibrium thermodynamics and kinetic theory. The work also presents derivation of kinetic theory based wall boundary condition which complies with the principles of non-equilibrium thermodynamics, and can simulate both continuum and rarefied slip flow in order to avoid extremely costly multi-scale simulation.