Abstract:
A local Hawking temperature is derived for any future outer trapping horizon in spherical symmetry, using a Hamilton-Jacobi variant of the Parikh-Wilczek tunneling method. It is given by a dynamical surface gravity as defined geometrically. The operational meaning of the temperature is that Kodama observers just outside the horizon measure an invariantly redshifted temperature, diverging at the horizon itself. In static, asymptotically flat cases, the Hawking temperature as usually defined by the Killing vector agrees in standard cases, but generally differs by a relative redshift factor between the horizon and infinity, being the temperature measured by static observers at infinity. Likewise, the geometrical surface gravity reduces to the Newtonian surface gravity in the Newtonian limit, while the Killing definition instead reflects measurements at infinity. This may resolve a longstanding puzzle concerning the Hawking temperature for the extremal limit of the charged stringy black hole, namely that it is the local temperature which vanishes. In general, this confirms the quasi-stationary picture of black-hole evaporation in early stages. However, the geometrical surface gravity is generally not the surface gravity of a static black hole with the same parameters.

Abstract:
Introducing the concept of the extreme trapping horizon, we discuss geometric features of dynamical extreme black holes in four dimensions and then derive the integral identities which hold for the dynamical extreme black holes. We address the causal/geometrical features too.

Abstract:
Black holes can be practically located (e.g. in numerical simulations) by trapping horizons, hypersurfaces foliated by marginal surfaces, and one desires physically sound measures of their mass and angular momentum. A generically unique angular momentum can be obtained from the Komar integral by demanding that it satisfy a simple conservation law. With the irreducible (Hawking) mass as the measure of energy, the conservation laws of energy and angular momentum take a similar form, expressing the rate of change of mass and angular momentum of a black hole in terms of fluxes of energy and angular momentum, obtained from the matter energy tensor and an effective energy tensor for gravitational radiation. Adding charge conservation for generality, one can use Kerr-Newman formulas to define combined energy, surface gravity, angular speed and electric potential, and derive a dynamical version of the so-called "first law" for black holes. A generalization of the "zeroth law" to local equilibrium follows. Combined with an existing version of the "second law", all the key quantities and laws of the classical paradigm for black holes (in terms of Killing or event horizons) have now been formulated coherently in a general dynamical paradigm in terms of trapping horizons.

Abstract:
In the context of a debate on the correct expression of the Hawking temperature of an expanding cosmological black hole, we show that the correct expression in terms of the Hawking-Hayward quasi-local energy m of the hole is T=1/(8\pi m(t)). This expression holds for comoving black holes and agrees with a recent proposal by Saida, Harada, and Maeda.

Abstract:
The physical interpretation of black hole's quasinormal modes is fundamental for realizing unitary quantum gravity theory as black holes are considered theoretical laboratories for testing models of such an ultimate theory and their quasinormal modes are natural candidates for an interpretation in terms of quantum levels. The spectrum of black hole's quasinormal modes can be re-analysed by introducing a black hole's effective temperature which takes into account the fact that, as shown by Parikh and Wilczek, the radiation spectrum cannot be strictly thermal. This issue changes in a fundamental way the physical understanding of such a spectrum and enables a re-examination of various results in the literature which realizes important modifies on quantum physics of black holes. In particular, the formula of the horizon's area quantization and the number of quanta of area result modified becoming functions of the quantum "overtone" number n. Consequently, the famous formula of Bekenstein-Hawking entropy, its sub-leading corrections and the number of microstates are also modified. Black hole's entropy results a function of the quantum overtone number too. We emphasize that this is the first time that black hole's entropy is directly connected with a quantum number. Previous results in the literature are re-obtained in the limit n \to \infty.

Abstract:
An energy conservation law is described, expressing the increase in mass-energy of a general black hole in terms of the energy densities of the infalling matter and gravitational radiation. For a growing black hole, this first law of black-hole dynamics is equivalent to an equation of Ashtekar & Krishnan, but the new integral and differential forms are regular in the limit where the black hole ceases to grow. An effective gravitational-radiation energy tensor is obtained, providing measures of both ingoing and outgoing, transverse and longitudinal gravitational radiation on and near a black hole. Corresponding energy-tensor forms of the first law involve a preferred time vector which plays the role for dynamical black holes which the stationary Killing vector plays for stationary black holes. Identifying an energy flux, vanishing if and only if the horizon is null, allows a division into energy-supply and work terms, as in the first law of thermodynamics. The energy supply can be expressed in terms of area increase and a newly defined surface gravity, yielding a Gibbs-like equation, with a similar form to the so-called first law for stationary black holes.

Abstract:
An essentially complete new paradigm for dynamical black holes in terms of trapping horizons is presented, including dynamical versions of the physical quantities and laws which were considered important in the classical paradigm for black holes in terms of Killing or event horizons. Three state functions are identified as surface integrals over marginal surfaces: irreducible mass, angular momentum and charge. There are three corresponding conservation laws, expressing the rate of change of the state function in terms of flux integrals, or equivalently as divergence laws for associated conserved currents. The currents of energy and angular momentum include the matter energy tensor in a physically appropriate way, plus terms attributable to an effective energy tensor for gravitational radiation. Four other state functions are derived: an effective energy, surface gravity, angular speed and electric potential. There follows a dynamical version of the so-called first law of black-hole mechanics. A corresponding zeroth law holds for null trapping horizons.

Abstract:
The density of stars in galactic bulges is often observed to be flat or slowly rising inside the influence radius of the supermassive black hole (SMBH). Attributing the dynamical friction force to stars moving more slowly than the test body, as is commonly done, is likely to be a poor approximation in such a core since there are no stars moving more slowly than the local circular velocity. We have tested this prediction using large-scale N-body experiments. The rate of orbital decay never drops precisely to zero, because stars moving faster than the test body also contribute to the frictional force. When the contribution from the fast-moving stars is included in the expression for the dynamical friction force, and the changes induced by the massive body on the stellar distribution are taken into account, Chandrasekhar's theory is found to reproduce the rate of orbital decay remarkably well. However, this rate is still substantially smaller than the rate predicted by Chandrasekhar's formula in its most widely-used forms, implying longer time scales for inspiral. Motivated by recent observations that suggest a parsec-scale core around the Galactic center SMBH, we investigate the evolution of a population of stellar-mass black holes (BHs) as they spiral in to the center of the Galaxy. After ~10Gyr, we find that the density of BHs can remain substantially less than the density in stars at all radii; we conclude that it would be unjustified to assume that the spatial distribution of BHs at the Galactic center is well described by steady-state models. One consequence is that rates of capture of BHs by the SMBH at the Galactic center (EMRIs) may be much lower than in standard models. We finally study the orbital decay of satellite galaxies into the central region of giant ellipticals and discuss the formation of multiple nuclei and multiplet of black holes in such systems.

Abstract:
We consider modifications to general relativity due to non-local string effects by using perturbation theory about the 4-dimensional Schwarzschild black hole metric. In keeping with our interpretation in previous works of black holes as quantum p-branes we investigate non-local effects due to a critical bosonic string compactified down to 4 dimensions. We show that non-local effects do not alter the spacetime topology (at least perturbatively), but they do lead to violations of the area law of black hole thermodynamics and to Hawking's first law of black hole thermodynamics. We also consider a simple analytic continuation of our perturbaive result into the non-perturbative region, which yields an ultraviolet-finite theory of quantum gravity. The Hawking temperature goes to zero in the non-perturbative region (zero string tension parameter), which is consistent with the view that Planck-size physics is quantum mechanical.

Abstract:
Our current understanding of the stellar initial mass function and massive star evolution suggests that young globular clusters may have formed hundreds to thousands of stellar-mass black holes, the remnants of stars with initial masses from $\sim 20 - 100\, M_\odot$. Birth kicks from supernova explosions may eject some black holes from their birth clusters, but most should be retained. Using a Monte Carlo method we investigate the long-term dynamical evolution of globular clusters containing large numbers of stellar black holes. We describe numerical results for 42 models, covering a range of realistic initial conditions, including up to $1.6\times10^6$ stars. In almost all models we find that significant numbers of black holes (up to $\sim10^3$) are retained all the way to the present. This is in contrast to previous theoretical expectations that most black holes should be ejected dynamically within a few Gyr. The main reason for this difference is that core collapse driven by black holes (through the Spitzer "mass segregation instability") is easily reverted through three-body processes, and involves only a small number of the most massive black holes, while lower-mass black holes remain well-mixed with ordinary stars far from the central cusp. Thus the rapid segregation of stellar black holes does not lead to a long-term physical separation of most black holes into a dynamically decoupled inner core, as often assumed previously. Combined with the recent detections of several black hole X-ray binary candidates in Galactic globular clusters, our results suggest that stellar black holes could still be present in large numbers in many globular clusters today, and that they may play a significant role in shaping the long-term dynamical evolution and the present-day dynamical structure of many clusters.