Abstract:
Linear and nonlinear entanglement witnesses for a given bipartite quantum systems are constructed. Using single particle feasible region, a way of constructing effective entanglement witnesses for bipartite systems is provided by exact convex optimization. Examples for some well known two qutrit quantum systems show these entanglement witnesses in most cases, provide necessary and sufficient conditions for separability of given bipartite system. Also this method is applied to a class of bipartite qudit quantum systems with details for d=3, 4 and 5. Keywords: non-linear and linear entanglement witnesses PACS number(s): 03.67.Mn, 03.65.Ud

Abstract:
We identify a subsystem fluctuation (variance) that measures entanglement in an arbitrary bipartite pure state. This fluctuation is of an observable that generalizes the notion of polarization to an arbitrary N-level subsystem. We express this polarization fluctuation in terms of the order-2 Renyi entanglement entropy and a generalized concurrence. The fluctuation-entanglement relation presented here establishes a framework for experimentally measuring entanglement using Stern-Gerlach-type state selectors.

Abstract:
We study the entanglement between two domains of a spin-1 AKLT chain subject to open boundary conditions. In this case the ground-state manifold is four-fold degenerate. We summarize known results and present additional exact analytical results for the von Neumann entanglement entropy, as a function of both the size of the domains and the total system size for {\it all} four degenerate ground-states. In the large $l,L$ limit the entanglement entropy approaches $\ln(2)$ and $2\ln(2)$ for the $S^z_T=\pm 1$ and $S^z_T=0$ states, respectively. In all cases, it is found that this constant is approached exponentially fast defining a length scale $\xi=1/\ln(3)$ equal to the known bulk correlation length.

Abstract:
We numerically study protocols consisting of repeated applications of two qubit gates used for generating random pure states. A necessary number of steps needed in order to generate states displaying bipartite entanglement typical of random states is obtained. For generic two qubit entangling gate the decay rate of purity is found to scale as $\sim n$ and therefore of order $\sim n^2$ steps are necessary to reach random bipartite entanglement. We also numerically identify the optimal two qubit gate for which the convergence is the fastest. Perhaps surprisingly, applying the same good two qubit gate in addition to a random single qubit rotations at each step leads to a faster generation of entanglement than applying a random two qubit transformation at each step.

Abstract:
Recently, a sufficient condition on the structure of the Kossakowski-Lindblad master equation has been given such that the generated reduced dynamics of two qubits results entangling for at least one among their initial separable pure states. In this paper we study to which extent this condition is also necessary. Further, we find sufficient conditions for bath-mediated entanglement generation in higher dimensional bipartite open quantum systems.

Abstract:
We develop a concept of entanglement percolation for long-distance singlet generation in quantum networks with neighboring nodes connected by partially entangled bipartite mixed states. We give a necessary and sufficient condition on the class of mixed network states for the generation of singlets. States beyond this class are insufficient for entanglement percolation. We find that neighboring nodes are required to be connected by multiple partially entangled states and devise a rich variety of distillation protocols for the conversion of these states into singlets. These distillation protocols are suitable for a variety of network geometries and have a sufficiently high success probability even for significantly impure states. In addition to this, we discuss possible further improvements achievable by using quantum strategies including generalized forms of entanglement swapping.

Abstract:
We provide analytic insight into the generation of stationary itinerant photon entanglement in a 3-mode optomechanical system. We identify the parameter regime of maximal entanglement, and show that strong entanglement is possible even for weak many-photon optomechanical couplings. We also show that strong tripartite entanglement is generated between the photonic and phononic output fields; unlike the bipartite photon-photon entanglement, this tripartite entanglement diverges as one approaches the boundary of system stability.

Abstract:
In this thesis we study the behavior of bipartite entanglement of a large quantum system, by analyzing the distribution of the Schmidt coefficients of the reduced density matrix. Applying the general methods of classical statistical mechanics, we develop a canonical approach for the study of the distribution of these coefficients for a fixed value of the average entanglement. We introduce a partition function depending on a fictitious temperature, which localizes the measure on the set of states with higher and lower entanglement, if compared to typical (random) states with respect to the Haar measure. The purity of one subsystem, which is our entanglement measure/indicator, plays the role of energy in the partition function. This thesis consists of two parts. In the first part, we completely characterize the distribution of the purity and of the eigenvalues for pure states. The global picture unveils several locally stable solutions exchange stabilities, through the presence of first and second order phase transitions. We also detect the presence of metastable states. In the second part, we focus on mixed states. Through the same statistical approach, we determine the exact expression of the first two moments of the local purity and the high temperature expansion of the first moment. We also bridge our problem with the theory of quantum channels, more precisely we exploit the symmetry properties of the twirling transformations in order to compute the exact expression for the first moment of the local purity.

Abstract:
Entanglement in a class of bipartite generalized coherent states is discussed. It is shown that a positive parameter can be associated with the bipartite generalized coherent states so that the states with equal value for the parameter are of equal entanglement. It is shown that the maximum possible entanglement of 1 bit is attained if the positive parameter equals $\sqrt{2}$. The result that the entanglement is one bit when the relative phase between the composing states is $\pi$ in bipartite coherent states is shown to be true for the class of bipartite generalized coherent states considered.

Abstract:
Using an exact approach, we study the dynamics of entanglement between two qubits coupled to independent reservoirs and between the two, initially disentangled, reservoirs. We also describe the transfer of bipartite entanglement from the two-qubits to their respective reservoirs focussing on the case of two atoms inside two different leaky cavities with a specific attention to the role of the detuning. We present a scheme to prepare the cavity fields in a maximally entangled state, without direct interaction between the cavities, by exploiting the initial qubits entanglement. We discuss a deterministic protocol, working in the presence of cavity losses, for the generation of a W-state of one qubit and two cavity fields and we describe a probabilistic scheme to entangle one of the atoms with the reservoir (cavity field) of the other atom.