Abstract:
We study the electronic instabilities in a 2D Hubbard model where one of the dimensions has a finite width, so that it can be considered as a large array of coupled chains. The finite transverse size of the system gives rise to a discrete string of Fermi points, with respective electron fields that, due to their mutual interaction, acquire anomalous scaling dimensions depending on the point of the string. Using bosonization methods, we show that the anomalous scaling dimensions vanish when the number of coupled chains goes to infinity, implying the Fermi liquid behavior of a 2D system in that limit. However, when the Fermi level is at the Van Hove singularity arising from the saddle points of the 2D dispersion, backscattering and Cooper-pair scattering lead to the breakdown of the metallic behavior at low energies. These interactions are taken into account through their renormalization group scaling, studying in turn their influence on the nonperturbative bosonization of the model. We show that, at a certain low-energy scale, the anomalous electron dimension diverges at the Fermi points closer to the saddle points of the 2D dispersion. The d-wave superconducting correlations become also large at low energies, but their growth is cut off as the suppression of fermion excitations takes place first, extending progressively along the Fermi points towards the diagonals of the 2D Brillouin zone. We stress that this effect arises from the vanishing of the charge stiffness at the Fermi points, characterizing a critical behavior that is well captured within our nonperturbative approach.

Abstract:
Salmhofer [Commun. Math. Phys. 194, 249 (1998)] has recently developed a new renormalization group method for interacting Fermi systems, where the complete flow from the bare action of a microscopic model to the effective low-energy action, as a function of a continuously decreasing infrared cutoff, is given by a differential flow equation which is local in the flow parameter. We apply this approach to the repulsive two-dimensional Hubbard model with nearest and next-nearest neighbor hopping amplitudes. The flow equation for the effective interaction is evaluated numerically on 1-loop level. The effective interactions diverge at a finite energy scale which is exponentially small for small bare interactions. To analyze the nature of the instabilities signalled by the diverging interactions we extend Salmhofers renormalization group for the calculation of susceptibilities. We compute the singlet superconducting susceptibilities for various pairing symmetries and also charge and spin density susceptibilities. Depending on the choice of the model parameters (hopping amplitudes, interaction strength and band-filling) we find commensurate and incommensurate antiferromagnetic instabilities or d-wave superconductivity as leading instability. We present the resulting phase diagram in the vicinity of half-filling and also results for the density dependence of the critical energy scale.

Abstract:
We prove that the weak coupling 2D Hubbard model away from half filling is a Landau Fermi liquid up to exponentially small temperatures. In particular we show that the wave function renormalization is an order 1 constant and essentially temperature independent in the considered range of temperatures and that the interacting Fermi surface is a regular convex curve. This result is obtained by deriving a convergent expansion (which is not a power series) for the two point Schwinger function by Renormalization Group methods and proving at each order suitable power counting improvements due to the convexity of the interacting Fermi surface. Convergence follows from determinant bounds for the fermionic expectations.

Abstract:
We give a Hamiltonian based interpretation of microscopic Fermi liquid theory within a renormalization group framework. We identify the fixed point Hamiltonian of Fermi liquid theory, with the leading order corrections, and show that this Hamiltonian in mean field theory gives the Landau phenomenological theory. A renormalized perturbation theory is developed for calculations beyond the Fermi liquid regime. We also briefly discuss the breakdown of Fermi liquid theory as it occurs in the Luttinger model, and the infinite dimensional Hubbard model at the Mott transition.

Abstract:
We consider the 2D Hubbard model on the honeycomb lattice, as a model for a single layer graphene sheet in the presence of screened Coulomb interactions. At half filling and weak enough coupling, we compute the free energy, the ground state energy and we construct the correlation functions up to zero temperature in terms of convergent series; analiticity is proved by making use of constructive fermionic renormalization group methods. We show that the interaction produces a modification of the Fermi velocity and of the wave function renormalization without changing the asymptotic infrared properties of the model with respect to the unperturbed non-interacting case; this rules out the possibility of superconducting or magnetic instabilities in the ground state. We also prove that the correlations verify a Ward Identity similar to the one for massless Dirac fermions, up to asymptotically negligible corrections and a renormalization of the charge velocity.

Abstract:
We study the spectral function of the 2D Hubbard model using cluster perturbation theory, and the density matrix renormalization group as a cluster solver. We reconstruct the two-dimensional dispersion at, and away from half-filling using 2xL ladders, with L up to 80 sites, yielding results with unprecedented resolution in excellent agreement with quantum Monte Carlo. The main features of the spectrum can be described with a mean-field dispersion, while kinks and pseudogap traced back to scattering between spin and charge degrees of freedom.

Abstract:
I apply a two-step density-matrix renormalization group method to the anisotropic two-dimensional Hubbard model. As a prelude to this study, I compare the numerical results to the exact one for the tight-binding model. I find a ground-state energy which agrees with the exact value up to four digits for systems as large as $24 \times 25$. I then apply the method to the interacting case. I find that for strong Hubbard interaction, the ground-state is dominated by magnetic correlations. These correlations are robust even in the presence of strong frustration. Interchain pair tunneling is negligible in the singlet and triplet channels and it is not enhanced by frustration. For weak Hubbard couplings, interchain non-local singlet pair tunneling is enhanced and magnetic correlations are strongly reduced. This suggests a possible superconductive ground state.

Abstract:
We derive the one-loop renormalization equations for the shift in the Fermi-wavevectors for one-dimensional interacting models with four Fermi-points (two left and two right movers) and two Fermi velocities v_1 and v_2. We find the shift to be proportional to (v_1-v_2)U^2, where U is the Hubbard-U. Our results apply to the Hubbard ladder and to the t_1-t_2 Hubbard model. The Fermi-sea with fewer particles tends to empty. The stability of a saddle point due to shifts of the Fermi-energy and the shift of the Fermi-wavevector at the Mott-Hubbard transition are discussed.

Abstract:
We use the functional renormalization group to analyze the temperature dependence of the quasi-particle scattering rates in the two-dimensional Hubbard model below half-filling. Using a band structure appropriate to overdoped Tl2Ba2CuO(6+x) we find a strongly angle dependent term linearly dependent on temperature which derives from an increasing scattering vertex as the energy scale is lowered. This behavior agrees with recent experiments and confirms earlier conclusions on the origin of the breakdown of the Landau Fermi liquid near the onset of superconductivity.

Abstract:
The two-loop renormalization group (RG) calculation is considerably extended here for the two-dimensional (2D) fermionic effective field theory model, which includes only the so-called "hot spots" that are connected by the spin-density-wave (SDW) ordering wavevector on a Fermi surface generated by the 2D $t-t'$ Hubbard model at low hole doping. We compute the Callan-Symanzik RG equation up to two loops describing the flow of the single-particle Green's function, the corresponding spectral function, the Fermi velocity, and some of the most important order-parameter susceptibilities in the model at lower energies. As a result, we establish that -- in addition to clearly dominant SDW correlations -- an approximate (pseudospin) symmetry relating a short-range \emph{incommensurate} $d$-wave charge order to the $d$-wave superconducting order indeed emerges at lower energy scales, which is in agreement with recent works available in the literature addressing the 2D spin-fermion model. We derive implications of this possible electronic phase in the ongoing attempt to describe the phenomenology of the pseudogap regime in underdoped cuprates.