Abstract:
In this paper the relativistic quantum mechanics is considered in the framework of the nonstandard synchronization scheme for clocks. Such a synchronization preserves Poincar{\'e} covariance but (at least formally) distinguishes an inertial frame. This enables to avoid the problem of a noncausal transmision of information related to breaking of the Bell's inequalities in QM. Our analysis has been focused mainly on the problem of existence of a proper position operator for massive particles. We have proved that in our framework such an operator exists for particles with arbitrary spin. It fulfills all the requirements: it is Hermitean and covariant, it has commuting components and moreover its eigenvectors (localised states) are also covariant. We have found the explicit form of the position operator and have demonstrated that in the preferred frame our operator coincides with the Newton--Wigner one. We have also defined a covariant spin operator and have constructed an invariant spin square operator. Moreover, full algebra of observables consisting of position operators, fourmomentum operators and spin operators is manifestly Poincar\'e covariant in this framework. Our results support expectations of other authors (Bell, Eberhard) that a consistent formulation of quantum mechanics demands existence of a preferred frame.

Abstract:
The Lorentz covariant classical and quantum statistical mechanics and thermodynamics of an ideal relativistic gas of bradyons (particles slower than light), luxons (particles moving with the speed of light) and tachyons (hypothetical particles faster than light) is discussed. The Lorentz covariant formulation is based on the preferred frame approach which among others enables consistent, free of paradoxes description of tachyons. The thermodynamic functions within the covariant approach are obtained both in classical and quantum case.

Abstract:
It has been shown by Gupta and Padmanabhan that the radiation reaction force of the Abraham-Lorentz-Dirac equation can be obtained by a coordinate transformation from the inertial frame of an accelerating charged particle to that of the laboratory. We show that the problem may be formulated in a flat space of five dimensions, with five corresponding gauge fields in the framework of the classical version of a fully gauge covariant form of the Stueckelberg- Feynman-Schwinger covariant mechanics (the zero mode fields of the 0,1,2,3 components correspond to the Maxwell fields). Without additional constraints, the particles and fields are not confined to their mass shells. We show that in the mass-shell limit, the generalized Lorentz force obtained by means of the retarded Green's functions for the five-dimensional field equations provides the classical Abraham-Lorentz-Dirac radiation reaction terms (with renormalized mass and charge). We also obtain general coupled equations for the orbit and the off-shell dynamical mass during the evolution. The theory does not admit radiation if the particle remains identically on-shell. The structure of the equations implies that the mass-shell deviaiton is bounded when the external field is removed.

Abstract:
The formula for the correlation function of spin measurements of two particles in two moving inertial frames is derived within Lorentz-covariant quantum-mechanics formulated in the absolute synchronization framework. The results are the first exact Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen correlation functions obtained for Lorentz-covariant quantum-mechanical system in moving frames under physically acceptable conditions, i.e., taking into account the localization of the particles during the detection and using the spin opeartor with proper transformation properties under the action of the Lorentz group. Some special cases and approximations of the calculated correlation function are given. The resulting correlation function can be used as a basis for a proposal of a decisive experiment for a possible existence of a quantum-mechanical preferred frame.

Abstract:
We show that standard Relativistic Dynamics Equation F=dp/d\tau is only partially covariant. To achieve full Lorentz covariance, we replace the four-force F by a rank 2 antisymmetric tensor acting on the four-velocity. By taking this tensor to be constant, we obtain a covariant definition of uniformly accelerated motion. We compute explicit solutions for uniformly accelerated motion which are divided into four types: null, linear, rotational, and general. For null acceleration, the worldline is cubic in the time. Linear acceleration covariantly extends 1D hyperbolic motion, while rotational acceleration covariantly extends pure rotational motion. We use Generalized Fermi-Walker transport to construct a uniformly accelerated family of inertial frames which are instantaneously comoving to a uniformly accelerated observer. We explain the connection between our approach and that of Mashhoon. We show that our solutions of uniformly accelerated motion have constant acceleration in the comoving frame. Assuming the Weak Hypothesis of Locality, we obtain local spacetime transformations from a uniformly accelerated frame K' to an inertial frame K. The spacetime transformations between two uniformly accelerated frames with the same acceleration are Lorentz. We compute the metric at an arbitrary point of a uniformly accelerated frame. We obtain velocity and acceleration transformations from a uniformly accelerated system K' to an inertial frame K. We derive the general formula for the time dilation between accelerated clocks. We obtain a formula for the angular velocity of a uniformly accelerated object. Every rest point of K' is uniformly accelerated, and its acceleration is a function of the observer's acceleration and its position. We obtain an interpretation of the Lorentz-Abraham-Dirac equation as an acceleration transformation from K' to K.

Abstract:
We discuss the non-relativistic limit of quantum field theory in an inertial frame, in the Rindler frame and in the presence of a weak gravitational field, highlighting and clarifying several subtleties. We study the following topics: (a) While the action for a relativistic free particle is invariant under the Lorentz transformation, the corresponding action for a non-relativistic free particle is not invariant under the Galilean transformation, but picks up extra contributions at the end points. This leads to an extra phase in the non-relativistic wave function under a Galilean transformation, which can be related to the rest energy of the particle even in the non-relativistic limit. (b) We show how the solution to the generally covariant Klein-Gordon equation in a non-inertial frame, which has a time-dependent acceleration, reduces to the quantum mechanical wave function in the presence of an appropriate (time-dependent) gravitational field, in the non-relativistic limit. The extra phase acquired by the non-relativistic wave function in an accelerated frame actually arises from the gravitational time dilation and survives in the non-relativistic limit. (c) We provide a detailed description of the non-relativistic limit of the Feynman propagator in a weak gravitational field, and discuss related issues. [Abridged Abstract]

Abstract:
We investigate inertial frames in the absence of Lorentz invariance, reconsidering the usual group structure implied by the relativity principle. We abandon the relativity principle, discarding the group structure for the transformations between inertial frames, while requiring these transformations to be at least linear (to preserve homogeneity). In theories with a preferred frame (aether), the set of transformations between inertial frames forms a groupoid/pseudogroup instead of a group, a characteristic essential to evading the von Ignatowsky theorems. In order to understand the dynamics, we also demonstrate that the transformation rules for energy and momentum are in general affine. We finally focus on one specific and compelling model implementing a minimalist violation of Lorentz invariance.

Abstract:
We investigate inertial frames in the absence of Lorentz invariance, reconsidering the usual group structure implied by the relativity principle. We abandon the relativity principle, discarding the group structure for the transformations between inertial frames, while requiring these transformations to be at least linear (to preserve homogeneity). In theories with a preferred frame (aether), the set of transformations between inertial frames forms a groupoid/pseudogroup instead of a group, a characteristic essential to evading the von Ignatowsky theorems. In order to understand the dynamics, we also demonstrate that the transformation rules for energy and momentum are in general affine. We finally focus on one specific and compelling model implementing a minimalist violation of Lorentz invariance.

Abstract:
The Lorentz transformation is used to analyse space and time coordinates corresponding to two spatially-separated clocks in the same inertial frame. The time dilatation effect is confirmed, but not `relativity of simultaneity' or `relativistic length contraction'. How these latter, spurious, effects arise from misuse of the Lorentz transformation is also explained.

Abstract:
General Relativity is known to break down at singularities. However, it is expected that quantum corrections become important when the curvature is of the order of Planck scale avoiding the singularity. By calculating the effect of tidal forces on a freely falling inertial frame, and assuming the least possible size of the frame to be of the Planck length, we show that the Lorentz frames cease to exist at a finite distance from the singularity. Within that characteristic radius, one cannot apply General Relativity nor Quantum Field Theory as we know them today. Additionally we consider other quantum length scales and impose limits on the distances from the singularity at which those theories can conceivably be applied within a Lorentz frame.