Abstract:
We develop a general Ginzburg-Landau theory which describes the effect of a Zeeman field on the superconducting order parameter in triplet superconductors. Starting from Ginzburg-Landau theories that describe fully gapped time-reversal symmetric triplet superconductors, we show that the Zeeman field has dramatic effects on the topological properties of the superconductors. In particular, in the vicinity of a critical chemical potential separating two topologically distinct phases, it is possible to induce a phase transition to a topologically nontrivial phase which supports chiral edge modes. Moreover, for specific directions of the Zeeman field, we obtain nodal superconducting phases with an emerging chiral symmetry, and with Majorana flat bands at the edge. The Ginzburg-Landau theory is microscopically supported by a self-consistent mean-field theory of the doped Kitaev-Heisenberg model.

Abstract:
Recent results for the coexistence of ferromagnetism and unconventional superconductivity with spin-triplet Cooper pairing are reviewed on the basis of the quasi-phenomenological Ginzburg-Landau theory. New results are reported. The results are discussed in view of applications to metallic compounds as UGe2, URhGe, ZrZn2.

Abstract:
Magnetic susceptibility, entropy and specific heat are calculated at the equilibrium points of phase transition to a phase of coexistence of ferromagnetic order and superconductivity in a new class of spin-triplet ferromagnetic superconductors. The results are discussed in view of application to metallic ferromagnets as UGe$_2$, ZrZn$_2$, URhGe.

Abstract:
Using the renormalization group method, new type of fluctuation-driven first order phase transitions and critical phenomena are predicted for certain classes of ferromagnetic superconductors and superfluids with unconventional (spin-triplet) Cooper pairing. The problem for the quantum phase transitions at extremely low and zero temperatures is also discussed. The results can be applied to a wide class of ferromagnetic superconductive and superfluid systems, in particular, to itinerant ferromagnets as UGe2 and URhGe.

Abstract:
Topological insulators and topological superconductors display various topological phases that are characterized by different Chern numbers or by gapless edge states. In this work we show that various quantum information methods such as the von Neumann entropy, entanglement spectrum, fidelity, and fidelity spectrum may be used to detect and distinguish topological phases and their transitions. As an example we consider a two-dimensional $p$-wave superconductor, with Rashba spin-orbit coupling and a Zeeman term. The nature of the phases and their changes are clarified by the eigenvectors of the $k$-space reduced density matrix. We show that in the topologically nontrivial phases the highest weight eigenvector is fully aligned with the triplet pairing state. A signature of the various phase transitions between two points on the parameter space is encoded in the $k$-space fidelity operator.

Abstract:
Classic and recent results for gauge effects on the properties of the normal-to-superconducting phase transition in bulk and thin film superconductors are reviewed. Similar problems in the description of other natural systems (liquid crystals, quantum field theory, early universe) are also discussed. The relatively strong gauge effects on the fluctuations of the ordering field at low spatial dimensionality D and, in particular, in thin (quasi-2D) films are considered in details. A special attention is paid to the fluctuations of the gauge field. It is shown that the mechanism in which these gauge fluctuations affect on the order of the phase transition and other phase transition properties varies with the variation of the spatial dimensionality D. The problem for the experimental confirmation of the theoretical predictions about the order of the phase transitions in gauge systems is discussed.

Abstract:
We investigate thermodynamic phases, including the phase of coexistence of superconductivity and ferromagnetism, the possible phase transitions of first and second order, and the shape of the phase diagram in mean-field approximation for a phenomenological model of spin-triplet ferromagnetic superconductors. The results are discussed in view of application to metallic ferromagnets as UGe$_2$, ZrZn$_2$, URhGe, and Fe.

Abstract:
Motivated by the strong, low temperature damping of nodal quasiparticles observed in some cuprate superconductors, we study quantum phase transitions in d_{x^2-y^2} superconductors with a spin-singlet, zero momentum, fermion bilinear order parameter. We present a complete, group-theoretic classification of such transitions into 7 distinct cases (including cases with nematic order) and analyze fluctuations by the renormalization group. We find that only 2, the transitions to d_{x^2-y^2}+is and d_{x^2-y^2} + i d_{xy} pairing, possess stable fixed points with universal damping of nodal quasiparticles; the latter leaves the gapped quasiparticles along (1,0), (0,1) essentially undamped.

Abstract:
I begin with a proposed global phase diagram of the cuprate superconductors as a function of carrier concentration, magnetic field, and temperature, and highlight its connection to numerous recent experiments. The phase diagram is then used as a point of departure for a pedagogical review of various quantum phases and phase transitions of insulators, superconductors, and metals. The bond operator method is used to describe the transition of dimerized antiferromagnetic insulators between magnetically ordered states and spin-gap states. The Schwinger boson method is applied to frustrated square lattice antiferromagnets: phase diagrams containing collinear and spirally ordered magnetic states, Z_2 spin liquids, and valence bond solids are presented, and described by an effective gauge theory of spinons. Insights from these theories of insulators are then applied to a variety of symmetry breaking transitions in d-wave superconductors. The latter systems also contain fermionic quasiparticles with a massless Dirac spectrum, and their influence on the order parameter fluctuations and quantum criticality is carefully discussed. I conclude with an introduction to strong coupling problems associated with symmetry breaking transitions in two-dimensional metals, where the order parameter fluctuations couple to a gapless line of fermionic excitations along the Fermi surface.

Abstract:
A general phenomenological theory is presented for the phase behavior of ferromagnetic superconductors with spin-triplet electron Cooper pairing. The theory describes in details the temperature-pressure phase diagrams of real inter-metallic compounds exhibiting the remarkable phenomenon of coexistence of spontaneous magnetic moment of the itinerant electrons and spin-triplet superconductivity. The quantum phase transitions which may occur in these systems are also described. The theory allows for a classification of these itinerant ferromagnetic superconductors in two types: type I and type II. The classification is based on quantitative criteria.The comparison of theory and experiment is performed and outstanding problems are discussed.