Abstract:
Most experts reject the quantum potential introduced by David Bohm in 1952. But it is impossible to describe some quantum mesoscopic phenomena observed in superconductor nanostructures without a quantum force.

Abstract:
The paper discusses dynamics of quantum measurements in mesoscopic solid-state systems. The aim is to show how the general ideas of the quantum measurement theory play out in the realistic models of actual mesoscopic detectors. The two general models of ballistic and tunneling detectors are described and studied quantitatively. Simple transformation cycle demonstrating wavefunction reduction in a mesosocpic qubit is suggested.

Abstract:
We investigated the degree distribution of brain networks extracted from functional magnetic resonance imaging of the human brain. In particular, the distributions are compared between macroscopic brain networks using region-based nodes and mesoscopic brain networks using voxel-based nodes. We found that the distribution from these networks follow the same family of distributions and represent a continuum of exponentially truncated power law distributions.

Abstract:
Is "Gravity" a deformation of "Electromagnetism"? Deformation theory suggests quantizing Special Relativity: formulate Quantum Information Dynamics $SL(2,C)_h$-gauge theory of dynamical lattices, with unifying gauge ``group'' the quantum bundle obtained from the Hopf monopole bundle underlying the quaternionic algebra and Dirac-Weyl spinors. The deformation parameter is the inverse of light speed 1/c, in duality with Planck's constant h. Then mass and electric charge form a complex coupling constant (m,q), for which the quantum determinant of the quantum group $SL(2,C)_h$ expresses the interaction strength as a linking number 2-form. There is room for both Coulomb constant $k_C$ and Newton's gravitational constant $G_N$, exponentially weaker then the reciprocal of the fine structure constant $\alpha$. Thus "Gravity" emerges already "quantum", in the discrete framework of QID, based on the quantized complex harmonic oscillator: the quantized qubit. All looks promising, but will the details backup this "grand design scheme"?

Abstract:
Motivated by a recent experiment by Buks et al. [Nature 391, 871 (1998)] we consider electron transport through an Aharonov-Bohm interferometer with a quantum dot in one of its arms. The quantum dot is coupled to a quantum system with a finite number of states acting as a which-path detector. The Aharonov-Bohm interference is calculated using a two-particle scattering approach for the joint transitions in detector and quantum dot. Tracing over the detector yields dephasing and a reduction of the interference amplitude. We show that the interference can be restored by a suitable measurement on the detector and propose a mesoscopic quantum eraser based on this principle.

Abstract:
The ground state of a two-dimensional, harmonically confined mesoscopic assembly of up to thirty polar molecules is studied by computer simulations. As the strength of the confining trap is increased, clusters evolve from superfluid, to supersolid, to insulating crystals. For strong confinement, the crystalline structure can be predicted based on classical energetics. However, clusters of specific numbers of particles (i.e., N=12 and N=19) display a {\it non-classical crystalline structure}, stabilized by quantum effects, in an intermediate range of confinement strength. In these cases, coexistence of quantum and classical crystalline configurations is observed at finite temperature.

Abstract:
The quantum theory for a mesoscopic electric circuit with charge discreteness is investigated. Taking the Caldirola-Kanai Hamiltonian in studding quantum mechanics of dissipative systems, we obtain the persistent current and the energy spectrum of a damped quantum LC-design mesoscopic circuit under the influence of a time-dependent external field.

Abstract:
We show an equivalence between the approach of Buttiker and the Fermi quantum stochastic calculus for mesoscopic systems. To illustrate the method we derive the current fluctuations in a two terminal mesoscopic circuit with two tunnel barriers containing a single quasi bound state on the well. The method enables us to focus on either the incoming/outgoing Fermi fields in the leads, or on the irreversible dynamics of the well state itself. The quantum stochastic calculus we use is the Fermi analogue of the input/output methods of quantum optics.

Abstract:
We present a strategy to engineer a simple cavity-QED two-bit universal quantum gate using mesoscopic distinct quantum superposition states. The dissipative effect on decoherence and amplitude damping of the quantum bits are analyzed and the critical parameters are presented.