Abstract:
We derive the equations of motion for general strings, i.e. strings with arbitrary relation between tension $\tau$ and energy per unit length $\epsilon$. The renormalization of $\tau$ and $\epsilon$ that results from averaging out small scale wiggles on the string is obtained in the general case to lowest order in the amount of wiggliness. For Nambu-Goto strings we find deviations from the equation of state $\epsilon \tau = {\rm constant}$ in higher orders. Finally we argue that wiggliness may radically modify the gauge cosmic string scenario.

Abstract:
We investigate the effect of wiggly cosmic strings on the cosmic microwave background radiation anisotropy and matter power spectrum by modifying the string network model used by Albrecht et al.. We employ the wiggly equation of state for strings and the one-scale model for the cosmological evolution of certain network characteristics. For the same choice of simulation parameters we compare the results with and without including wiggliness in the model and find that wiggliness together with the accompanying low string velocities lead to a significant peak in the microwave background anisotropy and to an enhancement in the matter power spectrum. For the cosmologies we have investigated (standard CDM, and, CDM plus cosmological constant), and within the limitations of our modeling of the string network, the anisotropy is in reasonable agreement with current observations but the COBE normalized amplitude of density perturbations is lower than what the data suggests. In the case of a cosmological constant and CDM model, a bias factor of about 2 is required.

Abstract:
The metric around a wiggly cosmic string is calculated in the linear approximation of Brans-Dicke theory of gravitation. The equations of motion for relativistic and non-relativistic particles in this metric are obtained. Light propagation is also studied and it is shown that photon trajectories can be bounded.

Abstract:
Previous work has shown that the standard supergravity approximation can break down when using AdS/CFT duality to study certain top-down formulations of the jet stopping problem in strongly-coupled N=4 super-Yang-Mills (SYM) plasmas, depending on the virtuality of the source of the "jet." In this paper, we identify the nature of this breakdown: High-momentum gravitons in the gravitational dual get stretched into relatively large classical string loops by tidal forces associated with the black brane. These stringy excitations of the graviton are not contained in the supergravity approximation, but we show that the jet stopping problem can nonetheless still be solved by drawing on various string-theory methods (the eikonal approximation, the Penrose limit, string quantization in pp-wave backgrounds) to obtain a probability distribution for the late-time classical string loops. In extreme cases, we find that the gravitons are stretched into very long folded strings which are qualitatively similar to the folded classical strings originally used by Gubser, Gulotta, Pufu and Rocha to model the jet stopping problem. This makes a connection in certain cases between the different methods that have been used to study jet stopping with AdS/CFT and gives a specific example of a precise N=4 SYM problem that generates such strings in the gravity description.

Abstract:
We study lower and upper bounds of the Hausdorff dimension for sets which are wiggly at scales of positive density. The main technical ingredient is a construction, for every continuum K, of a Borel probabilistic measure \mu with the property that on every ball B(x,r), with x in K, the measure is bounded by a universal constant multiple of r\exp(-g(x,r)), where g(x,r) > 0 is an explicit function. The continuum K is mean wiggly at exactly those points x in K where g(x, r) has a logarithmic growth to infinity as r goes to 0. The theory of mean wiggly continua leads, via the product formula for dimensions, to new estimates of the Hausdorff dimension for Cantor sets. We prove also that asymptotically flat sets are of Hausdorff dimension 1 and that asymptotically non-porous continua are of the maximal dimension. Another application of the theory is geometric Bowen's dichotomy for Topological Collet-Eckmann maps in rational dynamics. In particular, mean wiggly continua are dynamically natural as they occur as Julia sets of quadratic polynomials for parameters from a generic set on the boundary of the Mandelbrot set.

Abstract:
Motivated by BICEP2 results on the CMB polarization B-mode which imply primordial gravitational waves are produced when the Universe has the expansion rate of about $H \approx 10^{14}$ GeV, and by deviations from a smooth power-law behaviour for multipoles $\ell <50$ in the CMB temperature anisotropy power spectrum found in the WMAP and Planck experiments, we have expanded our class of large field inflationary models that fit both the BICEP2 and Planck CMB observations consistently. These best-fitted large field models are found to have a transition from a faster roll to the slow roll $V(\phi)=m^2 \phi^2/2$ inflation at a field value around 14.6~${\rm M_{Pl}}$ and thus a potential energy of $V(\phi) \sim (10^{16}\,{\rm GeV})^4$. In general this transition with sharp features in the inflaton potential produces not only suppression of scalars relative to tensor modes at small $k$ but also introduces wiggles in the primordial perturbation spectrum. These wiggles are shown to be useful to explain some localized features in the CMB angular power spectrum and can also have other observational consequences. Thus, primordial GW can be used now to make a tomography of inflation determining its fine structure. The resulting Wiggly Whipped Inflation scenario is described in details and the anticipated perturbation power spectra, CMB power spectra, non-Gaussianity and other observational consequences are calculated and compared to existing and forthcoming observations.

Abstract:
The exact metric around a wiggly cosmic string is found by modifying the energy momentum-tensor of a straight infinitely thin cosmic string to include an electric current along the symmetry axis.

Abstract:
It is shown that for any elastic string model with energy density $U$ and tension $T$, the divergent contribution from gravitational self interaction can be allowed for by an action renormalisation proportional to $(U-T)^2$. This formula is applied to the important special case of a bare model of the transonic type (characterised by a constant value of the product $UT$) that represents the macroscopically averaged effect of shortwavelength wiggles on an underlying microscopic model of the Nambu-Goto type (characterised by $U=T$).

Abstract:
Stationary rotating strings can be viewed as geodesic motions in appropriate metrics on a two-dimensional space. We obtain all solutions describing stationary rotating strings in flat spacetime as an application. These rotating strings have infinite length with various wiggly shapes. Averaged value of the string energy, the angular momentum and the linear momentum along the string are discussed.

Abstract:
Polyelectrolytes in poor solvents show a necklace structure where collapsed polymer pearls are linked to stretched strings. In the present paper the elasticity of such chains is studied in detail. Different deformation regimes are addressed. The first is the continuous regime, where many pearls are present. A continuous force extension relation ship is calculated. The main contribution comes from the tension balance and the electrostatic repulsion of consecutive pearls. The main correction term stems from the finite size of the pearls, which monitors their surface energy. For a finite amount of pearls discontinuous stretching is predicted. Finally counterion effects are discussed qualitatively.