Abstract:
Dyson-Schwinger equations furnish a Poincare' covariant approach to hadron physics. They reveal that dynamical chiral symmetry breaking is tied to the long-range behaviour of the strong interaction and make predictions corroborated by modern lattice-QCD simulations. A hallmark in the contemporary use of DSEs is the existence of a nonperturbative, symmetry preserving truncation that enables the proof of exact results. The systematic error associated with the truncation's leading term has been quantified and this underpins an efficacious one-parameter model that is being employed to study meson excited states.

Abstract:
Detailed investigations of the structure of hadrons are essential for understanding how matter is constructed from the quarks and gluons of QCD, and amongst the questions posed to modern hadron physics, three stand out. What is the rigorous, quantitative mechanism responsible for confinement? What is the connection between confinement and dynamical chiral symmetry breaking? And are these phenomena together sufficient to explain the origin of more than 98% of the mass of the observable universe? Such questions may only be answered using the full machinery of nonperturbative relativistic quantum field theory. These lecture notes provide an introduction to the application of Dyson-Schwinger equations in this context, and a perspective on progress toward answering these key questions.

Abstract:
I review recent results on the infrared properties of QCD from Dyson-Schwinger equations. The topics include infrared exponents of one-particle irreducible Green's functions, the fixed point behaviour of the running coupling at zero momentum, the pattern of dynamical quark mass generation and properties of light mesons.

Abstract:
We review applications of Dyson-Schwinger equations at nonzero temperature, T, and chemical potential, mu, touching topics such as: deconfinement and chiral symmetry restoration; the behaviour of bulk thermodynamic quantities; the (T,mu)-dependence of hadron properties; and the possibility of diquark condensation.

Abstract:
We study pseudoscalar and scalar mesons using a practical and symmetry preserving truncation of QCD's Dyson-Schwinger equations. We investigate and compare properties of ground and radially excited meson states. In addition to exact results for radial meson excitations we also present results for meson masses and decay constants from the chiral limit up to the charm-quark mass, e. g., the mass of the chi_{c0} (2P) meson.

Abstract:
We report on an analysis of the quark spectral representation at finite temperatures based on the quark propagator determined from its Dyson-Schwinger equation in Landau gauge. In Euclidean space we achieve nice agreement with recent results from quenched lattice QCD. We find different analytical properties of the quark propagator below and above the deconfinement transition. Using a variety of ansaetze for the spectral function we then analyze the possible quasiparticle spectrum, in particular its quark mass and momentum dependence in the high temperature phase. This analysis is completed by an application of the Maximum Entropy Method, in principle allowing for any positive semi-definite spectral function. Our results motivate a more direct determination of the spectral function in the framework of Dyson-Schwinger equations.

Abstract:
We apply Euclidean time methods to phenomenological Dyson-Schwinger models of hadrons. By performing a Fourier transform of the momentum space correlation function to Euclidean time and by taking the large Euclidean time limit, we project onto the lightest on-mass-shell hadron for given quantum numbers. The procedure, which actually resembles lattice gauge theory methods, allows the extraction of moments of structure functions, moments of light-cone wave functions and form factors without `ad hoc' extrapolations to the on-mass-shell points. We demonstrate the practicality of the procedure with the example of the pion form factor.

Abstract:
Dyson-Schwinger equations furnish a Poincare' covariant framework within which to study hadrons. A particular feature is the existence of a nonperturbative, symmetry preserving truncation that enables the proof of exact results. The gap equation reveals that dynamical chiral symmetry breaking is tied to the long-range behaviour of the strong interaction, which is thereby constrained by observables, and the pion is precisely understood, and seen to exist simultaneously as a Goldstone mode and a bound state of strongly dressed quarks. The systematic error associated with the simplest truncation has been quantified, and it underpins a one-parameter model efficacious in describing an extensive body of mesonic phenomena. Incipient applications to baryons have brought successes and encountered challenges familiar from early studies of mesons, and promise a covariant field theory upon which to base an understanding of contemporary large momentum transfer data.

Abstract:
We present a calculation of the three-quark core contribution to nucleon and Delta-baryon masses and Delta electromagnetic form factors in a Poincare-covariant Faddeev approach. A consistent setup for the dressed-quark propagator, the quark-quark, quark-'diquark' and quark-photon interactions is employed, where all ingredients are solutions of their respective Dyson-Schwinger or Bethe-Salpeter equations in a rainbow-ladder truncation. The resulting Delta electromagnetic form factors concur with present experimental and lattice data.

Abstract:
The real-world properties of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) - the strongly-interacting piece of the Standard Model - are dominated by two emergent phenomena: confinement; namely, the theory's elementary degrees-of-freedom - quarks and gluons - have never been detected in isolation; and dynamical chiral symmetry breaking (DCSB), which is a remarkably effective mass generating mechanism, responsible for the mass of more than 98% of visible matter in the Universe. These phenomena are not apparent in the formulae that define QCD, yet they play a principal role in determining Nature's observable characteristics. Much remains to be learnt before confinement can properly be understood. On the other hand,the last decade has seen important progress in the use of relativistic quantum field theory, so that we can now explain the origin of DCSB and are beginning to demonstrate its far-reaching consequences. Dyson-Schwinger equations have played a critical role in these advances. These lecture notes provide an introduction to Dyson-Schwinger equations (DSEs), QCD and hadron physics, and illustrate the use of DSEs to predict phenomena that are truly observable.