Abstract:
The time independent spherically symmetric solutions of General Relativity (GR) coupled to a dynamical unit timelike vector are studied. We find there is a three-parameter family of solutions with this symmetry. Imposing asymptotic flatness restricts to two parameters, and requiring that the aether be aligned with the timelike Killing field further restricts to one parameter, the total mass. These "static aether" solutions are given analytically up to solution of a transcendental equation. The positive mass solutions have spatial geometry with a minimal area 2-sphere, inside of which the area diverges at a curvature singularity occurring at an extremal Killing horizon that lies at a finite affine parameter along a radial null geodesic. Regular perfect fluid star solutions are shown to exist with static aether exteriors, and the range of stability for constant density stars is identified.

Abstract:
We review the status of "Einstein-Aether theory", a generally covariant theory of gravity coupled to a dynamical, unit timelike vector field that breaks local Lorentz symmetry. Aspects of waves, stars, black holes, and cosmology are discussed, together with theoretical and observational constraints. Open questions are stressed.

Abstract:
Bekenstein's Tensor-Vector-Scalar (TeVeS) theory has had considerable success as a relativistic theory of Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MoND). However, recent work suggests that the dynamics of the theory are fundamentally flawed and numerous authors have subsequently begun to consider a generalization of TeVeS where the vector field is given by an Einstein-Aether action. Herein, I develop strong-field solutions of the generalized TeVeS theory, in particular exploring neutron stars as well as neutral and charged black holes. I find that the solutions are identical to the neutron star and black hole solutions of the original TeVeS theory, given a mapping between the parameters of the two theories, and hence provide constraints on these values of the coupling constants. I discuss the consequences of these results in detail including the stability of such spacetimes as well as generalizations to more complicated geometries.

Abstract:
The exact static spherically symmetric solutions for pure-aether theory and Einstein-aether theory are presented. It is shown that both theories can deliver the Schwarzschild metric, but only the Einstein-aether theory contains solutions with "almost-Schwarzschild" metrics that satisfy Einstein's experiments. Two specific solutions are of special interest: one in pure-aether theory that derives the attractive nature of gravitation as a result of Minskowski signature of the metric, and one - the Jacobson solution- of Einstein-aether theory with "almost-Schwarzschild" metric and non-zero Ricci tensor.

Abstract:
We investigate the possible occurrence of a Bose-Einstein condensed phase of matter within neutron stars due to the formation of Cooper pairs among the superfluid neutrons. To this end we study the condensation of bosonic particles under the influence of both a short-range contact and a long-range gravitational interaction in the framework of a Hartree-Fock theory. We consider a finite-temperature scenario, generalizing existing approaches, and derive macroscopic and astrophysically relevant quantities like a mass limit for neutron stars.

Abstract:
We investigate the energy of a theory with a unit vector field (the "aether") coupled to gravity. Both the Weinberg and Einstein type energy-momentum pseudotensors are employed. In the linearized theory we find expressions for the energy density of the 5 wave modes. The requirement that the modes have positive energy is then used to constrain the theory. In the fully non-linear theory we compute the total energy of an asymptotically flat spacetime. The resulting energy expression is modified by the presence of the aether due to the non-zero value of the unit vector at infinity and its 1/r falloff. The question of non-linear energy positivity is also discussed, but not resolved.

Abstract:
Einstein-aether theory is general relativity coupled to a dynamical, unit timelike vector. If this vector is restricted in the action to be hypersurface orthogonal, the theory is identical to the IR limit of the extension of Horava gravity proposed by Blas, Pujol\`{a}s and Sibiryakov. Hypersurface orthogonal solutions of Einstein-aether theory are solutions to the IR limit of this theory, hence numerous results already obtained for Einstein-aether theory carry over.

Abstract:
We study the impact of modifying the vector sector of gravity on the CMB polarization. We employ the Einstein-aether theory as a concrete example. The Einstein-aether theory admits dynamical vector perturbations generated during inflation, leaving imprints on the CMB polarization. We derive the perturbation equations of the aether vector field in covariant formalism and compute the CMB B-mode polarization using the modified CAMB code. It is found that the amplitude of the B-mode signal from the aether field can surpass the one from the inflationary gravitational waves. The shape of the spectrum is clearly understood in an analytic way using the tight coupling approximation.

Abstract:
Einstein-aether theory is general relativity coupled to a dynamical unit timelike vector field. A brief review of current theoretical understanding and observational constraints on the four coupling parameters of the theory is given.

Abstract:
"Einstein-aether" theory is a generally covariant theory of gravity containing a dynamical preferred frame. This article continues an examination of effects on the motion of binary pulsar systems in this theory, by incorporating effects due to strong fields in the vicinity of neutron star pulsars. These effects are included through an effective approach, by treating the compact bodies as point particles with nonstandard, velocity dependent interactions parametrized by dimensionless "sensitivities". Effective post-Newtonian equations of motion for the bodies and the radiation damping rate are determined. More work is needed to calculate values of the sensitivities for a given fluid source, so precise constraints on the theory's coupling constants cannot yet be stated. It is shown, however, that strong field effects will be negligible given current observational uncertainties if the dimensionless couplings are less than roughly 0.01 and two conditions that match the PPN parameters to those of pure general relativity are imposed. In this case, weak field results suffice and imply one further condition on the couplings. Thus, there exists a one-parameter family of Einstein-aether theories with "small-enough" couplings that passes all current observational tests. No conclusion can yet be reached for large couplings.