Abstract:
We discuss two methods to encode one qubit into six physical qubits. Each of our two examples corrects an arbitrary single-qubit error. Our first example is a degenerate six-qubit quantum error-correcting code. We explicitly provide the stabilizer generators, encoding circuit, codewords, logical Pauli operators, and logical CNOT operator for this code. We also show how to convert this code into a non-trivial subsystem code that saturates the subsystem Singleton bound. We then prove that a six-qubit code without entanglement assistance cannot simultaneously possess a Calderbank-Shor-Steane (CSS) stabilizer and correct an arbitrary single-qubit error. A corollary of this result is that the Steane seven-qubit code is the smallest single-error correcting CSS code. Our second example is the construction of a non-degenerate six-qubit CSS entanglement-assisted code. This code uses one bit of entanglement (an ebit) shared between the sender and the receiver and corrects an arbitrary single-qubit error. The code we obtain is globally equivalent to the Steane seven-qubit code and thus corrects an arbitrary error on the receiver's half of the ebit as well. We prove that this code is the smallest code with a CSS structure that uses only one ebit and corrects an arbitrary single-qubit error on the sender's side. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages for each of the two codes.

Abstract:
We propose two protocols to encode a logical qubit into physical qubits relying on common types of qubit-qubit interactions in as simple forms as possible. We comment on its experimental implementation in several quantum computing architectures, e.g. with trapped atomic ion qubits, atomic qubits inside a high Q optical cavity, solid state Josephson junction qubits, and Bose-Einstein condensed atoms.

Abstract:
We present a formalism for encoding the logical basis of a qubit into subspaces of multiple physical levels. The need for this multilevel encoding arises naturally in situations where the speed of quantum operations exceeds the limits imposed by the addressability of individual energy levels of the qubit physical system. A basic feature of the multilevel encoding formalism is the logical equivalence of different physical states and correspondingly, of different physical transformations. This logical equivalence is a source of a significant flexibility in designing logical operations, while the multilevel structure inherently accommodates fast and intense broadband controls thereby facilitating faster quantum operations. Another important practical advantage of multilevel encoding is the ability to maintain full quantum-computational fidelity in the presence of mixing and decoherence within encoding subspaces. The formalism is developed in detail for single-qubit operations and generalized for multiple qubits. As an illustrative example, we perform a simulation of closed-loop optimal control of single-qubit operations for a model multilevel system, and subsequently apply these operations at finite temperatures to investigate the effect of decoherence on operational fidelity.

Abstract:
We demonstrate a quantum error correction scheme that protects against accidental measurement, using an encoding where the logical state of a single qubit is encoded into two physical qubits using a non-deterministic photonic CNOT gate. For the single qubit input states |0>, |1>, |0>+|1>, |0>-|1>, |0>+i|1>, and |0>-i|1> our encoder produces the appropriate 2-qubit encoded state with an average fidelity of 0.88(3) and the single qubit decoded states have an average fidelity of 0.93(5) with the original state. We are able to decode the 2-qubit state (up to a bit flip) by performing a measurement on one of the qubits in the logical basis; we find that the 64 1-qubit decoded states arising from 16 real and imaginary single qubit superposition inputs have an average fidelity of 0.96(3).

Abstract:
We give a simple way of characterising the average fidelity between a unitary and a general operation on a single qubit which only involves calculating the fidelities for a few pure input states.

Abstract:
We describe a simple way of characterizing the average fidelity between a unitary (or anti-unitary) operator and a general operation on a single qubit, which only involves calculating the fidelities for a few pure input states, and discuss possible applications to experimental techniques including Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR).

Abstract:
Quantum data is susceptible to decoherence induced by the environment and to errors in the hardware processing it. A future fault-tolerant quantum computer will use quantum error correction (QEC) to actively protect against both. In the smallest QEC codes, the information in one logical qubit is encoded in a two-dimensional subspace of a larger Hilbert space of multiple physical qubits. For each code, a set of non-demolition multi-qubit measurements, termed stabilizers, can discretize and signal physical qubit errors without collapsing the encoded information. Experimental demonstrations of QEC to date, using nuclear magnetic resonance, trapped ions, photons, superconducting qubits, and NV centers in diamond, have circumvented stabilizers at the cost of decoding at the end of a QEC cycle. This decoding leaves the quantum information vulnerable to physical qubit errors until re-encoding, violating a basic requirement for fault tolerance. Using a five-qubit superconducting processor, we realize the two parity measurements comprising the stabilizers of the three-qubit repetition code protecting one logical qubit from physical bit-flip errors. We construct these stabilizers as parallelized indirect measurements using ancillary qubits, and evidence their non-demolition character by generating three-qubit entanglement from superposition states. We demonstrate stabilizer-based quantum error detection (QED) by subjecting a logical qubit to coherent and incoherent bit-flip errors on its constituent physical qubits. While increased physical qubit coherence times and shorter QED blocks are required to actively safeguard quantum information, this demonstration is a critical step toward larger codes based on multiple parity measurements.

Abstract:
In this paper we address the problem of optimal reconstruction of a quantum state from the result of a single measurement when the original quantum state is known to be a member of some specified set. A suitable figure of merit for this process is the fidelity, which is the probability that the state we construct on the basis of the measurement result is found by a subsequent test to match the original state. We consider the maximisation of the fidelity for a set of three mirror symmetric qubit states. In contrast to previous examples, we find that the strategy which minimises the probability of erroneously identifying the state does not generally maximise the fidelity.

Abstract:
In the paper titled "Encoding A Qubit In An Oscillator" Gottesman, Kitaev, and Preskill [quant-ph/0008040] described a method to encode a qubit in the continuous Hilbert space of an oscillator's position and momentum variables. This encoding provides a natural error correction scheme that can correct errors due to small shifts of the position or momentum wave functions (i.e., use of the displacement operator). We present bounds on the size of correctable shift errors when both qubit and ancilla states may contain errors. We then use these bounds to constrain the quality of input qubit and ancilla states.