Abstract:
The ground-state energy and fine-structure splitting of ionized shallow donor impurity-exciton complex in quantum dots are investigated. It is found that fine-structure splitting could be largely reduced by the off-center ionized impurities since the anisotropic shape of exciton envelope function is significantly changed. Anomalous Stark shifts of the ground-state energy and efficient tuning of the fine-structure splitting by the external electric field due to the local electric field produced by the ionized impurities are discussed. The scheme may be useful for the design of the quantum dots-based entangled-photon source.

Abstract:
We derive a general relation between the fine structure splitting (FSS) and the exciton polarization angle of self-assembled quantum dots (QDs) under uniaxial stress. We show that the FSS lower bound under external stress can be predicted by the exciton polarization angle and FSS under zero stress. The critical stress can also be determined by monitoring the change in exciton polarization angle. We confirm the theory by performing atomistic pseudopotential calculations for the InAs/GaAs QDs. The work provides a deep insight into the dots asymmetry and their optical properties, and a useful guide in selecting QDs with smallest FSS which are crucial in entangled photon sources applications.

Abstract:
We report the properties of emission lines associated with the cascaded recombination of a quadexciton in single GaAlAs/AlAs quantum dots, studied by means of polarization-resolved photoluminescence and single-photon correlation experiments. It is found that photons which are emitted in a double-step 4X-3X process preserve their linear polarization, similarly to the case of conserved polarization of correlated photons in the 2X-X cascade. In contrast, an emission of either co-linear or cross-linear pairs of photons is observed for the 3X-2X cascade. Each emission line associated with the quadexciton cascade shows doublet structure in the polarization-resolved photoluminescence experiment. The maximum splitting is seen when the polarization axis is chosen along and perpendicular to the [110] crystallographic direction. This effect is ascribed to the fine structure splitting of the exciton and triexciton states in the presence of an anisotropic confining potential of ae dot. We also show that the splitting in the triexciton state surpasses that in the exciton state by a factor up to eight and their ratio scales with the energy distance between the 3X and X emission lines, thus, very likely, with a lateral size and/or a composition of the dot.

Abstract:
Theory of exciton fine structure in semiconductor quantum dots and its dependence on quantum dot anisotropy and external lateral electric field is presented. The effective exciton Hamiltonian including long range electron-hole exchange interaction is derived within the k*p effective mass approximation (EMA). The exchange matrix elements of the Hamiltonian are expressed explicitly in terms of electron and hole envelope functions. The matrix element responsible for the "bright" exciton splitting is identified and analyzed. An excitonic fine structure for a model quantum dot with quasi- two-dimensional anisotropic harmonic oscillator (2DLAHO) confining potential is analyzed as a function of the shape anisotropy, size and applied lateral electric field.

Abstract:
We demonstrate an on-demand hole spin qubit initialization scheme meeting four key requirements of quantum information processing: fast initialization (1/e ~ 100 ps), high fidelity (F > 99%), long qubit lifetime $(2T_{1}>T_{2}^{*}\simeq10\:\mathrm{ns})$, and compatibility with optical coherent control schemes. This is achieved by rapidly ionizing an exciton in an InGaAs quantum dot with very low fine-structure splitting at zero magnetic field. Furthermore, we show that the hole spin fidelity of an arbitrary quantum dot can be increased by optical Stark effect tuning of the fine-structure splitting close to zero.

Abstract:
In a charge tunable device, we investigate the fine structure splitting of neutral excitons in single long-wavelength (1.1\mu m < \lambda < 1.3 \mu m) InGaAs quantum dots as a function of external uniaxial strain. Nominal fine structure splittings between 16 and 136 \mu eV are measured and manipulated. We observe varied response of the splitting to the external strain, including positive and negative tuning slopes, different tuning ranges, and linear and parabolic dependencies, indicating that these physical parameters depend strongly on the unique microscopic structure of the individual quantum dot. To better understand the experimental results, we apply a phenomenological model describing the exciton polarization and fine-structure splitting under uniaxial strain. The model predicts that, with an increased experimental strain tuning range, the fine-structure can be effectively canceled for select telecom wavelength dots using uniaxial strain. These results are promising for the generation of on-demand entangled photon pairs at telecom wavelengths.

Abstract:
We propose an effective model to describe the statistical properties of exciton fine structure splitting (FSS) and polarization angle of quantum dot ensembles (QDEs). We derive the distributions of FSS and polarization angle for QDEs and show that their statistical features can be fully characterized using at most three independent measurable parameters. The effective model is confirmed using atomistic pseudopotential calculations as well as experimental measurements for several rather different QDEs. The model naturally addresses three fundamental questions that are frequently encountered in theories and experiments: (I) Why the probability of finding QDs with vanishing FSS is generally very small? (II) Why FSS and polarization angle differ dramatically from QD to QD? and (III) Is there any direct connection between FSS, optical polarization and the morphology of QDs? The answers to these fundamental questions yield a completely new physical picture for understanding optical properties of QDEs.

Abstract:
The fine structure of the neutral exciton in a single self assembled InGaAs quantum dot is investigated under the effect of a lateral electric field. Stark shifts up to 1.5 meV, an increase in linewidth, and a decrease in photoluminescence intensity were observed due to the electric field. We show that the lateral electric field strongly affects the exciton fine structure splitting due to active manipulation of the single particle wave-functions. Remarkably, the splitting can be tuned over large values and through zero.

Abstract:
We theoretically study the effects of bias-controlled interdot tunneling in vertically coupled quantum dots on the emission properties of spin excitons in various bias-controlled tunneling regimes. As a main result, for strongly coupled dots we predict substantial reduction of optical fine structure splitting without any drop in the optical oscillator strength. This special reduction diminishes the distinguibility of polarized decay paths in cascade emission processes suggesting the use of stacked quantum dot molecules as entangled photon-pair sources.

Abstract:
We use atomistic tight-binding theory with a configuration interaction description of Coulomb and exchange effects to describe excitons in symmetric quantum dots in a vertical electric field. We show that field-induced manipulation of exciton orientation and phase produces a drastic reduction of fine structure splitting, an anticrossing, and a 90 degree rotation of polarization, similar to experiment. An atomistic analysis is needed to explain how exciton reorientation modifies anisotropic exchange and fine structure splitting without significantly altering other splittings.