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Experimental Detection of the Gravitomagnetic London Moment  [PDF]
M. Tajmar,F. Plesescu,K. Marhold,C. J. de Matos
Physics , 2006,
Abstract: It is well known that a rotating superconductor produces a magnetic field proportional to its angular velocity. The authors conjectured earlier, that in addition to this so-called London moment, also a large gravitomagnetic field should appear to explain an apparent mass increase of Niobium Cooper-pairs. This phenomenon was indeed observed and induced acceleration fields outside the superconductor in the order of about 10^-4 g were found. The field appears to be directly proportional to the applied angular acceleration of the superconductor following our theoretical motivations. If confirmed, a gravitomagnetic field of measurable magnitude was produced for the first time in a laboratory environment. These results may open up a new experimental window on testing general relativity and its consequences using coherent matter.
Gravitomagnetic London Moment and the Graviton Mass inside a Superconductor  [PDF]
Clovis Jacinto de Matos,Martin Tajmar
Physics , 2006, DOI: 10.1016/j.physc.2005.08.004
Abstract: Using Proca electromagnetic and gravitoelectromagnetic equations the magnetic and gravitomagnetic properties of a rotating superconductor are respectively derived. Perfect diamagnetism, and the magnetic London moment are deduced from the photon mass in the superconductor. Similarly, it is shown that the conjecture proposed by the authors to resolve the cooper pair mass anomaly reported by Tate, can be explained by a graviton mass in the superconductor different with respect to its expected cosmological value.
Measurement of Gravitomagnetic and Acceleration Fields Around Rotating Superconductors  [PDF]
M. Tajmar,F. Plesescu,B. Seifert,K. Marhold
Physics , 2006, DOI: 10.1063/1.2437552
Abstract: It is well known that a rotating superconductor produces a magnetic field proportional to its angular velocity. The authors conjectured earlier, that in addition to this so-called London moment, also a large gravitomagnetic field should appear to explain an apparent mass increase of Niobium Cooper-pairs. A similar field is predicted from Einstein's general relativity theory and the presently observed amount of dark energy in the universe. An experimental facility was designed and built to measure small acceleration fields as well as gravitomagnetic fields in the vicinity of a fast rotating and accelerating superconductor in order to detect this so-called gravitomagnetic London moment. This paper summarizes the efforts and results that have been obtained so far. Measurements with Niobium superconductors indeed show first signs which appear to be within a factor of 2 of our theoretical prediction. Possible error sources as well as the experimental difficulties are reviewed and discussed. If the gravitomagnetic London moment indeed exists, acceleration fields could be produced in a laboratory environment.
Rotating Superconductors and the London Moment: Thermodynamics versus Microscopics  [PDF]
Yimin Jiang,Mario Liu
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.63.184506
Abstract: Comparing various microscopic theories of rotating superconductors to the conclusions of thermodynamic considerations, we traced their marked difference to the question of how some thermodynamic quantities (the electrostatic and chemical potentials) are related to more microscopic ones: The electron's the work function, mean-field potential and Fermi energy -- certainly a question of general import. After the correct identification is established, the relativistic correction for the London Moment is shown to vanish, with the obvious contribution from the Fermi velocity being compensated by other contributions such as electrostatics and interactions.
Disorder and the Supersolid State of Solid $^4$He  [PDF]
Ann Sophie C. Rittner,John D. Reppy
Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.98.175302
Abstract: We report torsional oscillator supersolid studies of highly disordered samples of solid $^4$He. In an attempt to approach the amorphous or glassy state of the solid, we prepare our samples by rapid freezing from the normal phase of liquid $^4$He. Less than two minutes is required for the entire process of freezing and the subsequent cooling of the sample to below 1 K. The supersolid signals observed for such samples are remarkably large, exceeding 20 % of the entire solid helium moment of inertia. These results, taken with the finding that the magnitude of the small supersolid signals observed in our earlier experiments can be reduced to an unobservable level by annealing, strongly suggest that the supersolid state exists for the disordered or glassy state of helium and is absent in high quality crystals of solid $^4$He.
The London moment: what a rotating superconductor reveals about superconductivity  [PDF]
J. E. Hirsch
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1088/0031-8949/89/01/015806
Abstract: The London moment is the magnetic moment acquired by a rotating superconductor. We propose that the London moment reveals the following fundamental properties of the superconducting state: (i) superconductors (unlike normal metals) know the $sign$ of the charge carriers, (ii) the superconducting charge carriers are $free$ electrons, (iii) electrons are expelled from the interior to the surface in the transition to the superconducting state, (iv) superfluid electrons occupy orbits of radius $2\lambda_L$ ($\lambda_L=$London penetration depth), and (v) a spin current exists in the ground state of superconductors. These properties are consistent with the Meissner effect, however the Meissner effect does not $directly$ reveal the sign of the charge carriers nor the fact that the carrier's mass is the free electron mass nor the fact that a spin current exists in superconductors. Note also that within the BCS theory of superconductivity none of the key properties of superconductors listed above are predicted. Instead, these properties are predicted by the theory of hole superconductivity.
The Dilemma of Bose Solids: is He Supersolid?  [PDF]
Philip W Anderson
Physics , 2013,
Abstract: Nearly a decade ago the old controversy about possible superfluid flow in the ground state of solid He4 was revived by the apparent experimental observation of such superflow. Although the experimentalists have recently retracted, very publicly, some of the observations on which such a claim was based, other confirming observations of which there is no reason for doubt remain on the record. Meanwhile theoretical arguments bolstered by some experimental evidence strongly favor the existence of supersolidity in the Bose-Hubbard model, and these arguments would seem to extend to solid He. The true situation thus is apparently extraordinarily opaque. The situation is complicated by the fact that all accurate simulation studies on Heuse the uniform sign hypothesis which confines them to the phase-coherent state, which is, in principle, supersolid, so that no accurate simulations of the true, classical solid exist. There is great confusion as to the nature of the ground state wave-function for a bose quantum solid, and we suggest that until that question is cleared up none of these dilemmas will be resolved.
Collective Modes in Supersolid 4He  [PDF]
M. J. Bijlsma,H. T. C. Stoof
Physics , 1997, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.56.14631
Abstract: We derive the hydrodynamic equations of motion of solid and supersolid 4He, that describe the collective modes of these phases. In particular, the usual hydrodynamics is modified in such a way that it leads to the presence of a propagating instead of a diffusive defect mode. The former is appropriate for a quantum crystal and observed in recent experiments. Furthermore, we find that in supersolid helium there are two additional modes associated with the superfluid degrees of freedom. The observation of these additional modes is a clear experimental signature of the supersolid phase.
A Gross-Pitaevskii Treatment for Supersolid He  [PDF]
Philip W Anderson
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1126/science.1169456
Abstract: The observations of non-linear rotational susceptibility (NCRI) in samples of solid He below 1-200 mK temperatures are conjectured to be describable in terms of a rarified Gross-Pitaevskii superfluid of vacancies (or, more generally, incommensuracies) with a transition temperature of about 50 mK, whose density is locally enhanced by crystal imperfections. We argue that the observations can be much affected by this density enhancement. We argue also that it is likely that the ground state of every pure Bose solid is supersolid.
Ring exchanges and the supersolid phase of 4He  [PDF]
D. M. Ceperley,B. Bernu
Physics , 2004, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.93.155303
Abstract: Using Path Integral Monte Carlo we calculate exchange frequencies in bulk hcp 4He as atoms undergo ring exchange. We fit the frequencies to a lattice model and examine whether such atoms could become a supersolid, that is have a non-classical rotational inertia. We find that the scaling with respect to the number of exchanging atoms is such that superfluid behavior will not be observed in a perfect 4He crystal.
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