Abstract:
Scalar couplings between covalently bound nuclear spins are a ubiquitous feature in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments, imparting valuable information to NMR spectra regarding molecular structure and conformation. Such couplings arise due to a second-order hyperfine interaction, and, in principle, the same mechanism should lead to scalar couplings between nuclear spins in unbound van der Waals complexes. Here, we report the first observation of scalar couplings between nuclei in van der Waals molecules. Our measurements are performed in a solution of hyperpolarized ${\rm ^{129}Xe}$ and pentane, using superconducting quantum interference devices to detect NMR in 10 mG fields, and are in good agreement with calculations based on density functional theory. van der Waals forces play an important role in many physical phenomena, and hence the techniques presented here may provide a new method for probing such interactions.

Abstract:
The temperature behaviour in the range 22\degree C to 500\degree C of the dielectric permittivity in the infrared range is investigated for CaF2, BaF2 and Al2O3 through reflectivity measurements. The dielectric permittivity is retrieved by fitting reflectivity spectra with a model taking into account multiphonon contributions. The results extrapolated from the measurements are applied to predict a temperature-dependent atom-surface van der Waals interaction. We specifically consider as the atom of interest Cs (8P3/2), the most relevant virtual couplings of which, fall in the range of thermal radiation and are located in the vicinity of the reststrahlen band of fluoride materials.

Abstract:
On the basis of a general formula obtained earlier via fourth-order erturbation theory within the framework of macroscopic quantum electrodynamics, the van der Waals potential between two neutral, unpolarized, ground-state atoms in the presence of a homogeneous, dispersing and absorbing magnetoelectric sphere is studied. When the radius of the sphere becomes sufficiently large, the result asymptotically agrees with that for two atoms near a planar interface. In the opposite limit of a very small sphere, the sphere can effectively be regarded as being a third ground-state atom, and the nonadditive three-atom van der Waals potential is recovered. To illustrate the effect of a sphere of arbitrary radius, numerical results are presented for the triangular arrangement where the atoms are at equidistance from the sphere, and for the linear arrangement where the atoms and the sphere are aligned along a straight line. As demonstrated, the enhancement or reduction of the interaction potential in the presence of purely electric or magnetic spheres can be physically understood in terms of image charges.

Abstract:
We study the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) effect with two individually addressed four-level Rydberg atoms subjected to the interatomic van der Waals interaction. We derive an effectively atomic Raman transition model where two ladders of the usual Rydberg-EIT setting terminating at the same upper Rydberg level of long radiative lifetime are turned into a Rydberg-EIT lambda setup via two-photon transitions, leaving the middle levels of each ladder largely detuned from the coupling and probe laser beams. It can hence overcome the limits of applications for EIT with atoms of the ladder-type level configuration involving a strongly decaying intermediate state by inducing coherence between two ground states. By probing one of the atoms, we observe four doublets of absorption induced by the Autler-Townes (AT) splitting and the van der Waals interaction. In particular, we find that the location of the EIT center remains unchanged compared to the interatomic-interaction-free case, which demonstrated that the interference among the multiple transition channels is basically destructive. The EIT with controlled Rydberg-Rydberg interaction among few atoms provides a versatile tool for engineering the propagation dynamics of light.

Abstract:
The recent measurement of the nuclear anapole moment of 133Cs has been interpreted to yield a value of the weak pion-nucleon coupling H_pi^1 which contradicts the upper limit from the 18F experiments. We argue that because of the sensitivity of the anapole moment to H_rho^0 in the odd proton nucleus 133Cs, there is a combination of weak meson-nucleon couplings which satisfies both experiments and which is (barely) in agreement with theory. In addition, the anapole moment measurement in 205Tl gives a constraint which is inconsistent with the value from 133Cs, calling into question the theory of nuclear anapole moments. We argue that measurements of directional asymmetry in n+p-->d+gamma and in the photo-disintegration of the deuteron by circularly polarized photons, combined with results from pp scattering, would determine H_pi^1 and several other weak meson-nucleon couplings in a model-independent way.

Abstract:
Experimental measurements of photoionization rates of $nD_{5/2}$ Rydberg states of Cs ($50 \leq n \leq 75$) in a 1064 nm far off-resonance dipole trap are presented. The photoionization rates are obtained by measuring the lifetimes of Rydberg atoms produced inside of a 1064 nm far off-resonance trap and comparing the lifetimes to corresponding control experiments in a magneto-optical trap. Experimental results for the control experiments agree with recent theoretical predictions for Rydberg state lifetimes and measured photoionization rates are in agreement with transition rates calculated from a model potential.

Abstract:
A method for determination of atomic dipole matrix elements of principal transitions from the value of dispersion coefficient C_6 of molecular potentials correlating to two ground-state atoms is proposed. The method is illustrated on atomic Cs using C_6 deduced from high-resolution Feshbach spectroscopy. The following reduced matrix elements are determined < 6S_{1/2} || D || 6P_{1/2} > =4.5028(60) |e| a0 and < 6S_{1/2} || D || 6P_{3/2} > =6.3373(84) |e| a0 (a0= 0.529177 \times 10^{-8} cm.) These matrix elements are consistent with the results of the most accurate direct lifetime measurements and have a similar uncertainty. It is argued that the uncertainty can be considerably reduced as the coefficient C_6 is constrained further.

Abstract:
利用碱金属原子与理想金属表面间范德瓦尔斯(vdW)作用势和不可约张量方法,首次计算了133CS激发态62D3/2 (F=2,3,4,5)原子超精细结构的C3系数.数值分别对应为:17.9956 、18.0796 、18.0857 及18.1756 .为了说明其结果的准确性,还与其他作者的理论数据和相关实验数据进行了比较,结果表明本文所得到的133CS激发态62D3/2 (F=2,3,4,5)原子的C3数值是可靠的. By utilizing alkali atoms and perfect surface of a metal between Van der Waals (vdW) interaction and irreducible tensor method. The coefficients C3 of hyperfine levels of excited states (62D3/2 (F=2,3,4,5)) of 133CS atom are calculated for the first time, where C3 values of 62D3/2 (F=2,3,4,5) are 17.9954 18.0796 , 18.0857 , and 18.1756 , To illustrate the accuracy of its results , in this paper and other authors of theoretical data and the related experimental data are compared, The results show that the present C3 values of excited states (62D3/2 (F=2,3,4,5)) of 133CS atom are reliable.

Abstract:
We discuss pair interatomic collisions in a Bose gas tightly confined in one (axial) direction and identify two regimes of scattering. In the quasi2D regime, where the confinement frequency $\omega_0$ greatly exceeds the gas temperature $T$, the scattering rates exhibit 2D features of the particle motion. At temperatures $T\sim\hbar\omega_0$ one has a confinement-dominated 3D regime, where the confinement can change the momentum dependence of the scattering amplitudes. We describe the collision-induced energy exchange between the axial and radial degrees of freedom and analyze recent experiments on thermalization and spin relaxation rates in a tightly (axially) confined gas of Cs atoms.

Abstract:
The coefficients of interatomic potential of simple form Exp-6 for neon are obtained. Repulsive part is calculated ab-initio in the Hartree-Fock approximation using the basis of atomic orbitals orthogonalized exactly on different lattice sites. Attractive part is determined empirically using single fitting parameter. The potential obtained describes well the equation of state and elastic moduli of neon crystal in wide range of interatomic distances and it is appropriate for molecular dynamic simulations of high temperature properties and phenomena in crystals and liquids.