Abstract:
We investigate the magnetic behavior of nuclear spins embedded in a 2D interacting electron gas using a Kondo lattice model description. We derive an effective magnetic Hamiltonian for the nuclear spins which is of the RKKY type and where the interactions between the nuclear spins are strongly modified by the electron-electron interactions. We show that the nuclear magnetic ordering at finite temperature relies on the (anomalous) behavior of the 2D static electron spin susceptibility, and thus provides a connection between low-dimensional magnetism and non-analyticities in interacting 2D electron systems. Using various perturbative and non-perturbative approximation schemes in order to establish the general shape of the electron spin susceptibility as function of its wave vector, we show that the nuclear spins locally order ferromagnetically, and that this ordering can become global in certain regimes of interest. We demonstrate that the associated Curie temperature for the nuclear system increases with the electron-electron interactions up to the millikelvin range.

Abstract:
We analyze the ordered state of nuclear spins embedded in an interacting two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) with Rashba spin-orbit interaction (SOI). Stability of the ferromagnetic nuclear-spin phase is governed by nonanalytic dependences of the electron spin susceptibility $\chi^{ij}$ on the momentum ($\tilde{\mathbf{q}}$) and on the SOI coupling constant ($\alpha$). The uniform ($\tq=0$) spin susceptibility is anisotropic (with the out-of-plane component, $\chi^{zz}$, being larger than the in-plane one, $\chi^{xx}$, by a term proportional to $U^2(2k_F)|\alpha|$, where $U(q)$ is the electron-electron interaction). For $\tq \leq 2m^*|\alpha|$, corrections to the leading, $U^2(2k_F)|\alpha|$, term scale linearly with $\tq$ for $\chi^{xx}$ and are absent for $\chi^{zz}$. This anisotropy has important consequences for the ferromagnetic nuclear-spin phase: $(i)$ the ordered state--if achieved--is of an Ising type and $(ii)$ the spin-wave dispersion is gapped at $\tq=0$. To second order in $U(q)$, the dispersion a decreasing function of $\tq$, and anisotropy is not sufficient to stabilize long-range order. However, renormalization in the Cooper channel for $\tq\ll2m^*|\alpha|$ is capable of reversing the sign of the $\tq$-dependence of $\chi^{xx}$ and thus stabilizing the ordered state. We also show that a combination of the electron-electron and SO interactions leads to a new effect: long-wavelength Friedel oscillations in the spin (but not charge) electron density induced by local magnetic moments. The period of these oscillations is given by the SO length $\pi/m^*|\alpha|$.

Abstract:
With decreasing density $n_s$ the thermopower $S$ of a low-disorder 2D electron system in silicon is found to exhibit a sharp increase by more than an order of magnitude, tending to a divergence at a finite, disorder-independent density $n_t$ consistent with the critical form $(-T/S) \propto (n_s-n_t)^x$ with $x=1.0\pm 0.1$ ($T$ is the temperature). Our results provide clear evidence for an interaction-induced transition to a new phase at low density in a strongly-interacting 2D electron system.

Abstract:
We investigated the magnetotransport in high quality ferromagnetic (Ga,Mn)As films and wires. At low temperature the conductivity decreases with decreasing temperature without saturation down to 20 mK. Here we show, that the conductivity decrease follows a ln($T/T_0$) dependency in 2D films and a $-1/\sqrt{T}$ dependency in 1D wires and is independent of an applied magnetic field. This behavior can be explained by the theory of electron-electron interaction.

Abstract:
We propose a setup to generate non-local spin-EPR pairs via pair collisions in a 2D interacting electron gas, based on constructive two-particle interference in the spin singlet channel at the pi/2 scattering angle. We calculate the scattering amplitude via the Bethe-Salpeter equation in the ladder approximation and small r_s limit, and find that the Fermi sea leads to a substantial renormalization of the bare scattering process. From the scattering length we estimate the current of spin-entangled electrons and show that it is within experimental reach.

Abstract:
We present a quantum solution to the electron spin decoherence by a nuclear pair-correlation method for the electron-nuclear spin dynamics under a strong magnetic field and a temperature high for the nuclear spins but low for the electron. The theory incorporates the hyperfine interaction, the intrinsic (both direct and indirect) nuclear interactions, and the extrinsic nuclear coupling mediated by the hyperfine interaction with the single electron in question. The last is shown to be important in free-induction decay (FID) of the single electron spin coherence. The spin echo eliminates the hyperfine-mediated decoherence but only reduces the decoherence by the intrinsic nuclear interactions. Thus, the decoherence times for single spin FID and ensemble spin echo are significantly different. The decoherence is explained in terms of quantum entanglement, which involves more than the spectral diffusion.

Abstract:
The interaction between localized magnetic moments and the electrons of a one-dimensional conductor can lead to an ordered phase in which the magnetic moments and the electrons are tightly bound to each other. We show here that this occurs when a lattice of nuclear spins is embedded in a Luttinger liquid. Experimentally available examples of such a system are single wall carbon nanotubes grown entirely from 13C and GaAs-based quantum wires. In these systems the hyperfine interaction between the nuclear spin and the conduction electron spin is very weak, yet it triggers a strong feedback reaction that results in an ordered phase consisting of a nuclear helimagnet that is inseparably bound to an electronic density wave combining charge and spin degrees of freedom. This effect can be interpreted as a strong renormalization of the nuclear Overhauser field and is a unique signature of Luttinger liquid physics. Through the feedback the order persists up into the millikelvin range. A particular signature is the reduction of the electric conductance by the universal factor 2.

Abstract:
The magnetic field of complete spin polarization is calculated in a disorderless single-valley strongly-interacting 2D electron system. In the metallic region above the Wigner-Mott transition, non-equilibrium spin states are predicted, which should give rise to hysteresis in the magnetization.

Abstract:
We consider a 2D electron system on a square lattice with hopping beyond nearest neighbors. The existence of the quantum critical point associated with an electronic topological transition in the noninteracting system results in density wave (DW) and high temperature d-wave superconducting (dSC) instabilities in the presence of an exchange interaction J. We analyse different DW ordering such as isotropic Spin DW (SDW), d-wave SDW, isotropic Charge DW (CDW) and d-wave CDW. The coexistence of dSC and SDW orders leads necessary to the existence of a third order which is a pi triplet superconducting (PTS) order. A new phase diagram with a mixed phase of SDW, dSC and PTS order is found. The theory is applied to high-Tc cuprates.

Abstract:
By analyzing the in-plane field magnetoconductivity, zero field transport, and thermodynamic spin magnetization in 2D correlated electron system in high mobility Si-MOS samples, we have revealed a novel high energy scale $T^*$, beyond the Fermi energy. In magnetoconductivity, we found a sharp onset of the novel regime $\delta \sigma(B,T) \propto (B/T)^2$ above a density dependent temperature $T_{\rm kink}(n)$, the high-energy behavior that "mimics" the low-temperature diffusive interaction regime. The zero field resistivity temperature dependence exhibits an inflection point $T_{\rm infl}$. In thermodynamic magnetization, the weak field spin susceptibility per electron, $\partial \chi /\partial n$ changes sign at $T_{dM/d n}$. All three notable temperatures, $T_{\rm kink}$, $T_{\rm infl}$, and $T_{d M/ d n}$, behave critically $\propto (n-n_c)$, are close to each other, and are intrinsic to high mobility samples only; we therefore associate them with a novel energy scale $T^*$ caused by interactions in the 2DE system.