Abstract:
The action for a relativistic free particle of mass $m$ receives a contribution $-mds$ from a path segment of infinitesimal length $ds$. Using this action in a path integral, one can obtain the Feynman propagator for a spinless particle of mass $m$. If one of the effects of quantizing gravity is to introduce a minimum length scale $L_P$ in the spacetime, then one would expect the segments of paths with lengths less than $L_P$ to be suppressed in the path integral. Assuming that the path integral amplitude is invariant under the `duality' transformation $ds\to L_P^2/ds$, one can calculate the modified Feynman propagator. I show that this propagator is the same as the one obtained by assuming that: quantum effects of gravity leads to modification of the spacetime interval $(x-y)^2$ to $(x-y)^2+L_P^2$. This equivalence suggests a deep relationship between introducing a `zero-point-length' to the spacetime and postulating invariance of path integral amplitudes under duality transformations.

Abstract:
In this paper, we are going to put in a single consistent framework apparently unrelated pieces of information, i.e. zero-point length, extra-dimensions, string T-duality. More in details we are going to introduce a modified Kaluza-Klein theory interpolating between (high-energy) string theory and (low-energy) quantum field theory. In our model zero-point length is a four dimensional ``virtual memory'' of compact extra-dimensions length scale. Such a scale turns out to be determined by T-duality inherited from the underlying fundamental string theory. From a low energy perspective short distance infinities are cut off by a minimal length which is proportional to the square root of the string slope, i.e. \sqrt{\alpha^\prime}. Thus, we provide a ``bridge'' between the ultra-relativistic string domain and the low energy arena of point-particle quantum field theory.

Abstract:
I discuss the role of spacetime supersymmetry in the interplay between strong/weak coupling duality and target space duality in string theory which arises in string/string duality. This can be seen via the construction of string soliton solutions which in $N=4$ compactifications of heterotic string theory break more than $1/2$ of the spacetime supersymmetries but whose analogs in $N=2$ and $N=1$ compactifications break precisely $1/2$ of the spacetime supersymmetries. As a result, these solutions may be interpreted as stable solitons in the latter two cases, and correspond to Bogomol'nyi-saturated states in their respective spectra.

Abstract:
We examine the structure of spacetime symmetries of toroidally compactified string theory within the framework of noncommutative geometry. Following a proposal of Frohlich and Gawedzki, we describe the noncommutative string spacetime using a detailed algebraic construction of the vertex operator algebra. We show that the spacetime duality and discrete worldsheet symmetries of the string theory are a consequence of the existence of two independent Dirac operators, arising from the chiral structure of the conformal field theory. We demonstrate that these Dirac operators are also responsible for the emergence of ordinary classical spacetime as a low-energy limit of the string spacetime, and from this we establish a relationship between T-duality and changes of spin structure of the target space manifold. We study the automorphism group of the vertex operator algebra and show that spacetime duality is naturally a gauge symmetry in this formalism. We show that classical general covariance also becomes a gauge symmetry of the string spacetime. We explore some larger symmetries of the algebra in the context of a universal gauge group for string theory, and connect these symmetry groups with some of the algebraic structures which arise in the mathematical theory of vertex operator algebras, such as the Monster group. We also briefly describe how the classical topology of spacetime is modified by the string theory, and calculate the cohomology groups of the noncommutative spacetime. A self-contained, pedagogical introduction to the techniques of noncommmutative geometry is also included.

Abstract:
T-duality of string theory suggests nonlocality manifested as the shortest possible distance. As an alternative, we suggest a nonlocal formulation of string theory that breaks T-duality at the fundamental level and does not require the shortest possible distance. Instead, the string has an objective shape in spacetime at all length scales, but different parts of the string interact in a nonlocal Bohmian manner.

Abstract:
After simultaneous compactification of spacetime and worldvolume on $K3$, the $D=10$ heterotic fivebrane with gauge group $SO(32)$ behaves like a $D=6$ heterotic string with gauge group $SO(28) \times SU(2)$, but with Kac--Moody levels different from those of the fundamental string. Thus the string/fivebrane duality conjecture in $D=10$ gets replaced by a string/string duality conjecture in $D=6$. Since $D=6$ strings are better understood than $D=10$ fivebranes, this provides a more reliable laboratory in which to test the conjecture. According to string/string duality, the Green--Schwarz factorization of the $D=6$ spacetime anomaly polynomial $I_{8}$ into $X_4\, \tilde{X}_4$ means that just as $X_4$ is the $\sigma$-model anomaly polynomial of the fundamental string worldsheet so $\tilde{X}_4$ should be the corresponding polynomial of the dual string worldsheet. To test this idea we perform a classical dual string calculation of $\tilde{X}_4$ and find agreement with the quantum fundamental string result. This also provides an {\it a posteriori} justification for assumptions made in a previous paper on string/fivebrane duality. Finally we speculate on the relevance of string/string duality to the vacuum degeneracy problem.

Abstract:
We review the status of solitons in superstring theory, with a view to understanding the strong coupling regime. These {\it solitonic} solutions are non-singular field configurations which solve the empty-space low-energy field equations (generalized, whenever possible, to all orders in $\alpha'$), carry a non-vanishing topological "magnetic" charge and are stabilized by a topological conservation law. They are compared and contrasted with the {\it elementary} solutions which are singular solutions of the field equations with a $\sigma$-model source term and carry a non-vanishing Noether "electric" charge. In both cases, the solutions of most interest are those which preserve half the spacetime supersymmetries and saturate a Bogomol'nyi bound. They typically arise as the extreme mass=charge limit of more general two-parameter solutions with event horizons. We also describe the theory {\it dual} to the fundamental string for which the roles of elementary and soliton solutions are interchanged. In ten spacetime dimensions, this dual theory is a superfivebrane and this gives rise to a string/fivebrane duality conjecture according to which the fivebrane may be regarded as fundamental in its own right, with the strongly coupled string corresponding to the weakly coupled fivebrane and vice-versa. After compactification to four spacetime dimensions, the fivebrane appears as a magnetic monopole or a dual string according as it wraps around five or four of the compactified dimensions. This gives rise to a four-dimensional string/string duality conjecture which subsumes a Montonen-Olive type duality in that the magnetic monopoles of the fundamental string correspond to the electric winding states of the dual string. This leads to a {\it duality of dualities} whereby under string/string duality the the strong/weak coupling $S$-duality trades places with the minimum/maximum length $T$-duality. Since these magnetic monopoles are extreme black holes, a prediction of $S$-duality is that the corresponding electric massive states of the fundamental string are also extreme black holes.

Abstract:
We calculate the R-R zero-norm states of type II string spectrum. To fit these states into the right symmetry charge parameters of the gauge transformations of the R-R tensor forms, one is forced to T-dualize some type I open string space-time coordinates and thus to introduce D-branes into the theory. We also demonstrate that the constant T-dual R-R 0-form zero-norm state, together with the NS-NS singlet zero-norm state are responsible for the SL(2,Z) S-duality symmetry of the type II B string theory.

Abstract:
It is shown that for a translationally invariant solution to string theory, spacetime duality interchanges the momentum in the symmetry direction and the axion charge per unit length. As one application, we show explicitly that charged black strings are equivalent to boosted (uncharged) black strings. The extremal black strings (which correspond to the field outside of a fundamental macroscopic string) are equivalent to plane fronted waves describing strings moving at the speed of light.

Abstract:
We discuss duality between Type IIA string theory, eleven-dimensional supergravity, and heterotic string theory in four spacetime dimensions with $N=1$ supersymmetry. We find theories whose infrared limit is trivial at enhanced symmetry points as well as theories with $N=1$ supersymmetry but the field content of $N=4$ theories which flow to the $N=4$ fixed line in the infrared.