Abstract:
The possibility of testing spatial noncommutativity via Rydberg atoms is explored. An atomic dipole of a cold Rydberg atom is arranged in appropriate electric and magnetic field, so that the motion of the dipole is constrained to be planar and rotationally symmetric. Spatial noncommutativity leads to that the canonical angular momentum possesses fractional values. In the limit of vanishing kinetic energy, the dominate value of the lowest canonical angular momentum takes $\hbar/2$. Furthermore, in the limit of eliminating magnetic field, the dominate value of the lowest canonical angular momentum changes from $\hbar/2$ to $\hbar/4$. This result is a clear signal of spatial noncommutativity. An experimental verification of this prediction is suggested.

Abstract:
Semiunitary transformation is applied to discuss supersymmetrization of cold Rydberg atoms. In the limit of vanishing kinetic energy the lowest angular momentum of the supersymmetric cold Rydberg atom is $3\hbar/2$. A possible experimental verification is suggested.

Abstract:
Cold Rydberg atoms exposed to strong magnetic fields possess unique properties which open the pathway for an intriguing many-body dynamics taking place in Rydberg gases consisting of either matter or anti-matter systems. We review both the foundations and recent developments of the field in the cold and ultracold regime where trapping and cooling of Rydberg atoms have become possible. Exotic states of moving Rydberg atoms such as giant dipole states are discussed in detail, including their formation mechanisms in a strongly magnetized cold plasma. Inhomogeneous field configurations influence the electronic structure of Rydberg atoms, and we describe the utility of corresponding effects for achieving tightly trapped ultracold Rydberg atoms. We review recent work on large, extended cold Rydberg gases in magnetic fields and their formation in strongly magnetized ultracold plasmas through collisional recombination. Implications of these results for current antihydrogen production experiments are pointed out, and techniques for trapping and cooling of such atoms are investigated.

Abstract:
We present our results on the experiments with cold Rb Rydberg atoms in a magneto-optical trap (MOT). Characteristic features of our experiment were the excitation of Rydberg atoms in a small volume within the cold atom cloud and sorting of the measured signals and spectra over the number of registered Rydberg atoms. We have measured the effective lifetime of the Rydberg state 37P, as well as its polarizability in a weak electric field. The results are in good agreement with the theoretical calculations. We have shown that localization of the small excitation volume around the zero-magnetic-field point makes possible to increase the spectral resolution and to obtain narrow microwave resonances in Rydberg atoms without switching off the MOT quadrupole magnetic field. We have measured the dependence of the amplitude of the dipole-dipole interaction resonances on the number of Rydberg atoms, which has a linear character and agrees with the theory for weak dipole-dipole interaction.

Abstract:
Coherent superpositions of the 49s and 48s Rydberg states of cold Rb atoms were studied near the surface of an atom chip. The superpositions were created and manipulated using microwaves resonant with the two-photon 49s-48s transition. Coherent behavior was observed using Rabi flopping, Ramsey sequences, spin-echo and spin-locking. These results are discussed in the context of Rydberg atoms as electric field noise sensors. We consider the coherence of systems quadratically coupled to noise fields with 1/f^k power spectral densities (k \approx 1).

Abstract:
We propose and analyze a new scheme to produce ultracold neutral plasmas deep in the strongly coupled regime. The method exploits the interaction blockade between cold atoms excited to high-lying Rydberg states and therefore does not require substantial extensions of current ultracold plasma experiments. Extensive simulations reveal a universal behavior of the resulting Coulomb coupling parameter, providing a direct connection between the physics of strongly correlated Rydberg gases and ultracold plasmas. The approach is shown to reduce currently accessible temperatures by more than an order of magnitude, which opens up a new regime for ultracold plasma research and cold ion-beam applications with readily available experimental techniques.

Abstract:
Quantum simulators could provide an alternative to numerical simulations for understanding minimal models of condensed matter systems in a controlled way. Typically, cold atom systems are used to simulate e.g. Hubbard models. In this paper, we discuss a range of exotic interactions that can be formed when cold Rydberg atoms are loaded into optical lattices with unconventional geometries; such as long-range electron-phonon interactions and extended Coulomb like interactions. We show how these can lead to proposals for quantum simulators for complex condensed matter systems such as superconductors. Continuous time quantum Monte Carlo is used to compare the proposed schemes with the physics found in traditional condensed matter Hamiltonians for systems such as high temperature superconductors.

Abstract:
Resonant electric dipole-dipole interactions between cold Rydberg atoms were observed using microwave spectroscopy. Laser-cooled Rb atoms in a magneto-optical trap were optically excited to 45d Rydberg states using a pulsed laser. A microwave pulse transferred a fraction of these Rydberg atoms to the 46p state. A second microwave pulse then drove atoms in the 45d state to the 46d state, and was used as a probe of interatomic interactions. The spectral width of this two-photon probe transition was found to depend on the presence of the 46p atoms, and is due to the resonant electric dipole-dipole interaction between 45d and 46p Rydberg atoms.

Abstract:
Long-range interactions between cold Rydberg atoms, which are used in many important applications, can be enhanced using F\"orster resonances between collective many-body states controlled by an external electric field. Here we report on the first experimental observation of highly-resolved radio-frequency-assisted F\"orster resonances in a few cold Rb Rydberg atoms. We also observed radio-frequency-induced F\"orster resonances which cannot be tuned by a dc electric field. They imply an efficient transition from van der Waals to resonant dipole-dipole interaction due to Floquet sidebands of Rydberg levels appearing in the rf-field. This method can be applied to enhance the interactions of almost arbitrary Rydberg atoms with large principal quantum numbers.

Abstract:
By investigating the quantum properties of magnetically trapped nS Rydberg atoms, it is demonstrated that the composite nature of Rydberg atoms significantly alters their trapping properties opposed to point-like particles with the same magnetic moment. We show how the specific signatures of the Rydberg trapping potential can be probed by means of ground state atoms that are off-resonantly coupled to the Rydberg state via a two photon laser transition. In addition, it is demonstrated how this approach provides new possibilities for generating traps for ground state atoms. Simulated time-of-flight pictures mirroring the experimental situation are provided.