Abstract:
Vortex matter in mesoscopic superconductors is known to be strongly affected by the geometry of the sample. Here we show that in nanoscale superconductors with coherence length comparable to the Fermi wavelength the shape resonances of the order parameter results in an additional contribution to the quantum topological confinement - leading to unconventional vortex configurations. Our Bogoliubov-de Gennes calculations in a square geometry reveal a plethora of asymmetric, giant multi-vortex, and vortex-antivortex structures, stable over a wide range of parameters and which are very different from those predicted by the Ginzburg-Landau theory. These unconventional states are relevant for high-Tc nanograins, confined Bose-Einstein condensates, and graphene flakes with proximity-induced superconductivity.

Abstract:
I consider the problem of the vortex contribution to quasiparticle transport in unconventional superconductors with line nodes, a nd argue that the magnetic field dependence of transport coefficients is fixed by the same scattering processes which limit low-temperature transport. I give no detailed calculations, but show that qualitatively correct results may be obtained in the limit of low temperatures and fields by simple physical arguments, based on estimates of the density of states and relaxation time in analogy with the zero-field case. I conclude with a brief discussion of the problem of anisotropy of the field dependence and influence of experimental geometry.

Abstract:
The elementary vortex pinning potential is studied in unconventional superconductors within the framework of the quasiclassical theory of superconductivity. Numerical results are presented for d-, anisotropic s-, and isotropic s-wave superconductors to show explicitly that in unconventional superconductors the vortex pinning potential is determined mainly by the loss of the condensation energy in bulk due to the presence of the pinning center, i.e., by the breakdown of the Anderson's theorem. It is found that the vortex pinning energy in the d-wave pairing case is 4 -- 13 times larger than those in the s-wave pairing cases. This means that an enhancement of pinning effect in unconventional superconductors occurs due to the breakdown of the Anderson's theorem. The case of a chiral p-wave superconductor is also investigated in terms of the vortex core states subject to the Andreev reflection, where important is whether the vorticity and chirality are parallel or antiparallel.

Abstract:
We study the effect of the superconducting gap nodes on the vortex lattice properties of high temperature superconductors at very low temperatures. The nonlinear, nonlocal and nonanalytic nature of this effect is shown to have measurable consequences for the vortex lattice geometry and the effective penetration depth in the mixed state as measured by muon-spin-rotation experiments.

Abstract:
The first integrals of the Ginzburg-Landau equations for a vortex-free state of superconductors with different mixed symmetries of the order parameter are found. The general boundary conditions for the order parameter at the ideal interface between the superconductor and vacuum are derived. Based on these integrals and boundary conditions, we analyze the stability criteria for vortex-free state in unconventional superconductors. The threshold field above which the Abrikosov vortices can enter the superconductor is found to be higher or equal to the thermodynamic critical field for all states under study.

Abstract:
There is compelling evidence for a strong electron-phonon interaction (EPI) in cuprate superconductors from the isotope effects on the supercarrier mass, high resolution angle resolved photoemission spectroscopies (ARPES), a number of optical and neutron-scattering measurements in accordance with our prediction of high-temperature superconductivity in polaronic liquids. A number of observations point to the possibility that high-Tc cuprate superconductors may not be conventional Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) superconductors, but rather derive from the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of real-space pairs, which are mobile small bipolarons. Here I review the bipolaron theory of unconventional proximity effects, the symmetry and checkerboard modulations of the order parameter and quantum magneto-oscillations discovered recently in cuprates.

Abstract:
We develop an optimized perturbation theory for the Ginzburg - Landau description of thermal fluctuations effects in the vortex liquids. Unlike the high temperature expansion which is asymptotic, the optimized expansion is convergent. Radius of convergence on the lowest Landau level is $a_{T}=-3$ in 2D and $a_{T}=-5$ in 3D. It allows a systematic calculation of magnetization and specific heat contributions due to thermal fluctuations of vortices in strongly type II superconductors to a very high precision. The results are in good agreement with existing Monte Carlo simulations and experiments. Limitations of various nonperturbative and phenomenological approaches are noted. In particular we show that there is no exact intersection point of the magnetization curves both in 2D and 3D.

Abstract:
We review the interplay of frustration and strong electronic correlations in quasi-two-dimensional organic charge transfer salts, such as k-(BEDT-TTF)_2X and Et_nMe_{4-n}Pn[Pd(dmit)2]2. These two forces drive a range of exotic phases including spin liquids, valence bond crystals, pseudogapped metals, and unconventional superconductivity. Of particular interest is that in several materials there is a direct transition as a function of pressure from a spin liquid Mott insulating state to a superconducting state. Experiments on these materials raise a number of profound questions about the quantum behaviour of frustrated systems, particularly the intimate connection between spin liquids and superconductivity. Insights into these questions have come from a wide range of theoretical techniques including first principles electronic structure, quantum many-body theory and quantum field theory. In this review we introduce the basic ideas of the field by discussing a simple frustrated Heisenberg model with four spins. We then describe the key experimental results, emphasizing that for two materials, k-(BEDT-TTF)_2Cu_2(CN)_3 and EtMe_3Sb[Pd(dmit)_2]_2, there is strong evidence for a spin liquid ground state, and for EtMe_3P[Pd(dmit)_2]_2, a valence bond solid ground state. We review theoretical attempts to explain these phenomena, arguing that this can be captured by a Hubbard model on the anisotropic triangular lattice at half filling, and that resonating valence bond wavefunctions can capture most of the essential physics. We review evidence that this model can have a spin liquid ground state for a range of parameters that are realistic for the relevant materials. We conclude by summarising the progress made thus far and identifying some of the key questions still to be answered.

Abstract:
We perform large-scale numerical calculations self-consistently solving the Bogoliubov-de Gennes (BdG) equations in the magnetic field together with random impurities to directly demonstrate the typical quasi-particle interference (QPI) in the presence of vortices as observed by scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy experiments in unconventional superconductors. The calculations reveal that vortex itself never works as a scatter causing the QPI pattern but vortex core containing impurity brings about the enhancement of the sign-preserving QPI peaks. Its origin is Andreev bound-states distorted by impurity, and all the measurement findings are consistently explained by the scenario based on the numerical results.

Abstract:
We calculate various thermodynamic quantities of vortex liquids in a layered superconductor by using the nonperturbative parquet approximation method, which was previously used to study the effect of thermal fluctuations in two-dimensional vortex systems. We find there is a first-order transition between two vortex liquid phases which differ in the magnitude of their correlation lengths. As the coupling between the layers increases,the first-order transition line ends at a critical point. We discuss the possible relation between this critical end-point and the disappearance of the first-order transition which is observed in experiments on high temperature superconductors at low magnetic fields.