Abstract:
This paper is devoted to investigating the physically interesting optical and electromagnetic properties, phenomena and effects of wave propagation in the negative refractive index materials, which is often referred to as the {\it left-handed media} in the literature. This paper covers a wide range of subjects and related topics of left-handed media such as many mathematical treatment of fundamental effects ({\it e.g.}, the reflection and the refraction laws on the interface between LH and RH media, the group velocity and energy density in dispersive materials, the negative optical refractive index resulting from a moving regular medium, the reversal of Doppler effect in left-handed media, the reversal of Cerenkov radiation in left-handed media, the optical refractive index of massive particles and physical meanings of left-handed media, the anti-shielding effect and negative temperature in left-handed media, {\it etc.}), and their some applications to certain areas ({\it e.g.}, three kinds of compact thin subwavelength cavity resonators (rectangular, cylindrical, spherical) made of left-handed media, the photon geometric phases due to helicity inversions inside a periodical fiber made of left-handed media, {\it etc.}).

Abstract:
We argue that the widely spread opinion that the left-handed media (LHM) are characterized by a negative refractive index $n_-$ is misleading. Since n does not enter into Maxwell's equations and boundary conditions, any medium may be described by both positive n and negative $n_-=-n$. Two thermodynamic inequalities are presented, that make a difference between the LHM and the regular media (RM). The first one reads that the group velocity is positive in the RM and negative in the LHM. The second one is that the product ${\rm Re}(n) {\rm Im}(n)$ is positive in the RM and negative in the LHM. Both inequalities are invariant with respect to the change $n \to n_-$. However, to use $n_-$ one should change some traditional electrodynamics definitions.

Abstract:
We investigated the spectral properties of a new class of nanostructured artificial composite materials with tailored electromagnetic response, i.e. negative refractive index materials, also known as "left-handed" metamaterials. We analyzed structures incorporating both ordinary positive index media and negative refractive index metamaterials where the interface may be graded to an arbitrary degree. Utilizing a modified version of the Rosen-Morse function, we derived analytical expressions for the field intensity and spectral reflection and transmission through a graded interface between positive and negative index materials. We compared our results to numerical solutions obtained using the transfer matrix technique. .

Abstract:
We report analytical calculations for the propagation of electromagnetic radiation through an inhomogeneous layer whose refractive index varies in one dimension situated between bulk right- and left-handed media. Significant field localization is generated in the layer that is caused by the coherent superposition of evanescent waves. The strength of the field localization and the transmission properties of the layer are investigated as a function of the layer width, losses and defects in the refractive index; the former two being modelled by continuous changes, and the latter by discontinuous changes, in the index profile.

Abstract:
The sign of the refractive index of any medium is soley determined by the requirement that the propagation of an electromagnetic wave obeys Einstein causality. Our analysis shows that this requirement predicts that the real part of the refractive index may be negative in an isotropic medium even if the electric permittivity and the magnetic permeability are both positive. Such a system may be a route to negative index media at optical frequencies. We also demonstrate that the refractive index may be positive in left-handed media that contain two molecular species where one is in its excited state.

Abstract:
The transfer matrix of the slab waveguide made up of a negative-refractive-index material is solved using the rigorous electromagnetic wave theory. The characters and application of the transfer matrix were also discussed. The dispersion relations of the three-layer symmetric slab waveguide possessing a negative-refractive-index guiding layer and positive-refractive-index surrounding medium are investigated by the transfer matrix method. The exotic properties of guided transverse electric(TE) waves in a left-handed waveguide were investigated graphically. There are no fundamental modes in a left-handed waveguide. The lowest mode was the first-order mode which had cutoff frequency. The first-order mode exits only when the parameters of the left-handed waveguide satisfied certain terms. Guided modes existed both for imaginary transverse wave numbers and real transverse wave numbers in a left-handed waveguide, while guided modes only exist only for real transverse wave numbers in a right-handed waveguide.

Abstract:
Being a left-handed surgeon, more specifically a left-handed ENT surgeon, presents a unique pattern of difficulties.This article is an overview of left-handedness and a personal account of the specific difficulties a left-handed ENT surgeon faces.

Abstract:
The orientation of the angular momentum vector with respect to the triaxial density distribution selects a left-handed or right-handed system principal axes. This breaking of chiral symmetry manifests itself as pairs of nearly identical $\Delta I=1$-bands. The chiral structures combine high-j particles and high-j holes with a triaxial rotor. Tilted axis cranking calculations predict the existence of such configurations in different mass regions. There is experimental evidence in odd-odd nuclei around mass 134. The quantized motion of the angular momentum vector between the left- and right-handed configurations, which causes the splitting between the chiral sister bands, can be classified as tunneling (chiral rotors) or oscillation (chiral vibrators).

Abstract:
We present a quantization scheme for the electromagnetic field interacting with atomic systems in the presence of dispersing and absorbing magnetodielectric media, including left-handed material having negative real part of the refractive index. The theory is applied to the spontaneous decay of a two-level atom at the center of a spherical free-space cavity surrounded by magnetodielectric matter of overlapping band-gap zones. Results for both big and small cavities are presented, and the problem of local-field corrections within the real-cavity model is addressed.