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Non equilibrium steady states: fluctuations and large deviations of the density and of the current  [PDF]
B. Derrida
Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.1088/1742-5468/2007/07/P07023
Abstract: These lecture notes give a short review of methods such as the matrix ansatz, the additivity principle or the macroscopic fluctuation theory, developed recently in the theory of non-equilibrium phenomena. They show how these methods allow to calculate the fluctuations and large deviations of the density and of the current in non-equilibrium steady states of systems like exclusion processes. The properties of these fluctuations and large deviation functions in non-equilibrium steady states (for example non-Gaussian fluctuations of density or non-convexity of the large deviation function which generalizes the notion of free energy) are compared with those of systems at equilibrium.
Non-equilibrium steady-states in conformal field theory  [PDF]
Denis Bernard,Benjamin Doyon
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1007/s00023-014-0314-8
Abstract: We present a construction of non-equilibrium steady states in one-dimensional quantum critical systems carrying energy and charge fluxes. This construction is based on a scattering approach within a real-time hamiltonian reservoir formulation. Using conformal field theory techniques, we prove convergence towards steady states at large time. We discuss in which circumstances these states describe the universal non-equilibrium regime at low temperatures. We compute the exact large deviation functions for both energy and charge transfers, which encode for the quantum and statistical fluctuations of these transfers at large time. They are universal, depending only on fundamental constants (h, k_B), on the central charge and on the external parameters such as the temperatures or the chemical potentials, and they satisfy fluctuation relations. A key point consists in relating the derivatives of these functions to the linear response functions but at complex shifted external parameters.
Modified Fluctuation-dissipation theorem for non-equilibrium steady-states and applications to molecular motors  [PDF]
G. Verley,K. Mallick,D. Lacoste
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1209/0295-5075/93/10002
Abstract: We present a theoretical framework to understand a modified fluctuation-dissipation theorem valid for systems close to non-equilibrium steady-states and obeying markovian dynamics. We discuss the interpretation of this result in terms of trajectory entropy excess. The framework is illustrated on a simple pedagogical example of a molecular motor. We also derive in this context generalized Green-Kubo relations similar to the ones derived recently by Seifert., Phys. Rev. Lett., 104, 138101 (2010) for more general networks of biomolecular states.
Non-equilibrium steady-states in a driven-dissipative superfluid  [PDF]
Ralf Labouvie,Bodhaditya Santra,Simon Heun,Herwig Ott
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: We experimentally study a driven-dissipative Josephson junction array, realized with a weakly interacting Bose Einstein condensate residing in a one-dimensional optical lattice. Engineered losses on one site act as a local dissipative process, while tunneling from the neighboring sites constitutes the driving force. We characterize the emerging steady-states of this atomtronic device. With increasing dissipation strength $\gamma$ the system crosses from a superfluid state, characterized by a coherent Josephson current into the lossy site to a resistive state, characterized by an incoherent hopping transport. For intermediate values of $\gamma$, the system exhibits bistability, where a superfluid and a resistive branch coexist. We also study the relaxation dynamics towards the steady-state, where we find a critical slowing down, indicating the presence of a non-equilibrium phase transition.
Lower bounds for ballistic current and noise in non-equilibrium quantum steady states  [PDF]
Benjamin Doyon
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1016/j.nuclphysb.2015.01.007
Abstract: Let an infinite, homogeneous, many-body quantum system be unitarily evolved for a long time from a state where two halves are independently thermalized. One says that a non-equilibrium steady state emerges if there are nonzero steady currents in the central region. In particular, their presence is a signature of ballistic transport. We analyze the consequences of the current observable being a conserved density; near equilibrium this is known to give rise to linear wave propagation and a nonzero Drude peak. Using the Lieb-Robinson bound, we derive, under a certain regularity condition, a lower bound for the non-equilibrium steady-state current determined by equilibrium averages. This shows and quantifies the presence of ballistic transport far from equilibrium. The inequality suggests the definition of "nonlinear sound velocities", which specialize to the sound velocity near equilibrium in non-integrable models, and "generalized sound velocities", which encode generalized Gibbs thermalization in integrable models. These are bounded by the Lieb-Robinson velocity. The inequality also gives rise to a bound on the energy current noise in the case of pure energy transport. We show that the inequality is satisfied in many models where exact results are available, and that it is saturated at one-dimensional criticality.
Time-reversal symmetry and fluctuation relations in non-equilibrium quantum steady states  [PDF]
Denis Bernard,Benjamin Doyon
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1088/1751-8113/46/37/372001
Abstract: In this note, we present a simple derivation, from time-reversal symmetry, of fluctuation relations for steady-state large deviation functions in non-equilibrium quantum systems. We further show that a condition of pure transmission implies extended fluctuation relations, connecting large deviation functions to mean currents at shifted temperatures and chemical potentials. We illustrate these concepts in various examples, including the interacting resonant level model and conformal or integrable models.
Non-equilibrium steady-states for interacting open systems: exact results  [PDF]
Valeriu Moldoveanu,Horia D. Cornean,Claude-Alain Pillet
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.84.075464
Abstract: Under certain conditions we prove the existence of a steady-state transport regime for interacting mesoscopic systems coupled to reservoirs (leads). The partitioning and partition-free scenarios are treated on an equal footing. Our time-dependent scattering approach is {\it exact} and proves, among other things the independence of the steady-state quantities from the initial state of the sample. Closed formulas for the steady-state current amenable for perturbative calculations w.r.t. the interaction strength are also derived. In the partitioning case we calculate the first order correction and recover the mean-field (Hartree-Fock) results.
"Equilibrium" states of non equilibrium system  [PDF]
Bohdan Lev
Physics , 2008,
Abstract: A possible approach to description of the non equilibrium system has been proposed. Based on the Fokker-Plank equation in term of energy for non equilibrium distribution function of macroscopical system was obtained the stationary solution which can be interpreted as the equilibrium distribution function for new energetic state. The proposed approach takes into account the possible motion between different states of system, induced by dissipation of energy and influence of environment which dependence on energy of the system. A non-linear model, which describe possible stationary state of system with different processes in it, has been described.
Dynamic Relaxation of a Levitated Nanoparticle from a Non-Equilibrium Steady State  [PDF]
Jan Gieseler,Romain Quidant,Christoph Dellago,Lukas Novotny
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1038/NNANO.2014.40
Abstract: Fluctuation theorems are a generalization of thermodynamics on small scales and provide the tools to characterize the fluctuations of thermodynamic quantities in non-equilibrium nanoscale systems. They are particularly important for understanding irreversibility and the second law in fundamental chemical and biological processes that are actively driven, thus operating far from thermal equilibrium. Here, we apply the framework of fluctuation theorems to investigate the important case of a system relaxing from a non-equilibrium state towards equilibrium. Using a vacuum-trapped nanoparticle, we demonstrate experimentally the validity of a fluctuation theorem for the relative entropy change occurring during relaxation from a non-equilibrium steady state. The platform established here allows non-equilibrium fluctuation theorems to be studied experimentally for arbitrary steady states and can be extended to investigate quantum fluctuation theorems as well as systems that do not obey detailed balance.
Luttinger Liquid in Non-equilibrium Steady State  [PDF]
Mihail Mintchev,Paul Sorba
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1088/1751-8113/46/9/095006
Abstract: We propose and investigate an exactly solvable model of non-equilibrium Luttinger liquid on a star graph, modeling a multi-terminal quantum wire junction. The boundary condition at the junction is fixed by an orthogonal matrix S, which describes the splitting of the electric current among the leads. The system is driven away from equilibrium by connecting the leads to heat baths at different temperatures and chemical potentials. The associated non-equilibrium steady state depends on S and is explicitly constructed. In this context we develop a non-equilibrium bosonization procedure and compute some basic correlation functions. Luttinger liquids with general anyon statistics are considered. The relative momentum distribution away from equilibrium turns out to be the convolution of equilibrium anyon distributions at different temperatures. Both the charge and heat transport are studied. The exact current-current correlation function is derived and the zero-frequency noise power is determined.
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