Abstract:
Precise total cross-sections and invariant-mass distributions have been measured for photoproduction of pion pairs off the proton producing $p\pi^0\pi^0$ and $n\pi^+\pi^0$ final states from the threshold region up to 800 MeV incident photon energy. Additionally, beam helicity asymmetries have been measured in the second resonance region (550 MeV - 820 MeV). The experiment was performed at the tagged photon beam of the Mainz MAMI accelerator with the Crystal Ball and TAPS detectors combined to give an almost 4$\pi$ solid-angle electromagnetic calorimeter. The results are much more precise than any previous measurements and confirm the chiral perturbation theory predictions for the threshold behavior of these reactions. In the second resonance region, the invariant-mass distributions of meson-meson and meson-nucleon pairs are in reasonable agreement with model predictions, but none of the models reproduce the asymmetries for the mixed-charge channel.

Abstract:
Coherent $\eta$-meson photoproduction on the deuteron has been studied, where the emphasis is on the relative importance of two-body contributions from hadronic rescattering and electromagnetic meson exchange currents besides the impulse approximation. For the elementary photoproduction amplitude a coupled resonance model developed by Bennhold and Tanabe has been used which fits reasonably well the experimental data. The rescattering effects are treated within a coupled channel approach considering the intermediate excitation of the $P_{11}(1440)$, $D_{13}(1520)$, and $S_{11}(1535)$ nucleon resonances. The hadronic interaction between nucleon and resonances is modeled by one boson exchange potentials, which we have considered both in the static approximation as well as fully retarded. The sum of all considered two-body effects results in an enhancement of the total cross section between 10 in the maximum and 25 percent closer to threshold around 680 MeV if the hadronic interaction is treated retarded. This enhancement shows up in the differential cross sections mainly at backward angles. It increases steadily from only a few percent at $0^\circ$ to more than a factor two at $180^\circ$ for a photon energy of 680 MeV. Two-body effects become also significant in certain polarization observables. Finally, no discrepancy has been found for the ratio of the isoscalar amplitude to the proton amplitude between coherent and incoherent $\eta$-photoproduction on the deuteron due to a nonvanishing complex and energy dependent phase relation.

Abstract:
One-loop corrections due to the intermediate $\pi N$ and $\rho N$ states are studied in $\omega$ photoproduction near threshold. Our results show that the coupled-channel effects should be taken into account in extracting reliable nucleon resonance parameters from the forthcoming vector meson photoproduction data in the resonance region.

Abstract:
Within the meson exchange model we study $\omega$ meson photoproduction at energies above the s channel resonance region. Different model prescriptions for the $\omega{NN}$ vertex function are investigated imposing gauge invariance as well as crossing symmetry. The calculations reproduce the energy dependence of the differential $\omega$ photoproduction cross sections at moderate $|u|$ for $E_\gamma{\le}4.7$ GeV, which previously were discussed as an indication of the hard interaction between the photon and quarks of the nucleon.

Abstract:
Coherent eta photoproduction on the deuteron is studied in the $S_{11}$ resonance region neglecting eta rescattering and two-body processes. For the elementary reaction on the nucleon, we have considered the dominant $S_{11}(1535)$ resonance and as background the nucleon pole terms as well as $\rho$ and $\omega$ meson exchange. We have studied the influence of different choices for the neutron resonance amplitude, different prescriptions for fixing the invariant mass of the resonance amplitude and different methods for deriving the elementary production amplitude for an arbitrary reference frame.

Abstract:
The $\eta$ production in the nucleon resonance energy region is studied within the unitary coupled-channels effective Lagrangian approach of the Giessen model. We demonstrate that the second peak recently observed in the cross section of $\eta$ photoproduction on the neutron at $\sqrt{s}$=1.66 GeV can be explained in terms of coupled-channel effects due to $S_{11}(1650)$ and $P_{11}(1710)$ resonance excitations.

Abstract:
Associative photoproduction of $\omega$-meson and $N^{*}(1440)$ on nucleons, $\gamma+N\to\omega+N^{*}(1440)$, in the near threshold region is investigated in a framework employing effective Lagrangians. Besides $\pi$-exchange in t-channel, baryon exchanges, i.e. N- and $N^{*}$-exchanges, in the s- and u-channels are also taken into account in calculations of differential cross-section and beam asymmetry. Important inputs of this model are the vector and tensor coupling constants of $\omega NN^{*}(1440)$-vertex, which are assumed to be equal to the values of these couplings for $\omega NN$ vertex. Using our previous estimation of $\omega NN$ coupling constants obtained from a fit to available experimental data on photoproduction of $\omega$ meson in the near threshold region, we produce the necessary numerical predictions for different observables in $\gamma+N\to\omega+N^{*}(1440)$. Numerical results shows that at low $|$t$|$ dominant contribution comes from t-channel $\pi$-exchange while effects of nucleon and $N^{*}(1440)$ pole terms can be seen at large $|t|$. Our predictions for the differential cross section and beam asymmetry for the processes $\gamma+N\to\omega+N^{*}(1440)$, where N is proton and neutron at $E_{\gamma}=2.5$ GeV are presented with zero width approximation and also with the inclusion of width effects of $N^{*}(1440)$.

Abstract:
An unified approach to the pseudo scalar meson ($\pi, \eta$, and $K$) photoproduction off nucleons are presented. It begins with the low energy QCD Lagrangian, and the resonances in the s- and u- channels are treated in the framework of the quark model The duality hypothesis is imposed to limit the number of the t-channel exchanges. The CGLN amplitudes for each reaction are evaluated, which include both proton and neutron targets. The important role by the S-wave resonances in the second resonance region is discussed, it is particularly important for the $K, \eta$ and $\eta^\prime$ photoproductions.

Abstract:
A study of p(gamma,K)Sigma processes in an isobar model at tree level is reported. By comparing model calculations to the published SAPHIR data, we explore the possible role of different isospin I=1/2 (N*) and I=3/2 (Delta*) resonances in the reaction dynamics. In our analysis, the inclusion of the ``missing'' D_{13}(1895) resonance does only slightly improve the global description of the Sigma photoproduction data. More convincing signals for the presence of such a ``missing'' resonance emerged in the analysis of the isospin related p(gamma,K+)Lambda reaction. Various implementations of the nonresonant part of the Sigma photoproduction amplitude are presented. The sensitivity of the computed observables and extracted resonance parameters to the uncertainties inherent to the treatment of the nonresonant (background) diagrams are discussed.

Abstract:
The resonance effects are investigated in the $\phi$ meson photoproduction near threshold through a quark model approach with an effective Lagrangian. The diffractive contribution is consistently estimated by the {\it t}-channel Pomeron exchange. Another non-diffractive process, {\it t}-channel $\pi^0$ exchange is also included. The numerical result shows that the Pomeron exchange plays dominant role in the $\phi$ meson photoproduction, while the cross sections of the non-diffractive processes, i.e. {\it s}- and {\it u}-channel excitations, and {\it t}-channel $\pi^0$ exchange, are quite small. In the polarization observables, we find that large asymmetries are produced in the backward direction by the interferences from the {\it s}- and {\it u}-channel resonances, while in the forward direction, only very small asymmetries are generated. Meanwhile, we find that the effects from the $\pi^0$ exchange are generally negligible.