Abstract:
The indistinguishability of independent single photons is presented by decomposing the single photon pulse into the mixed state of different transform limited pulses. The entanglement between single photons and outer environment or other photons induces the distribution of the center frequencies of those transform limited pulses and makes photons distinguishable. Only the single photons with the same transform limited form are indistinguishable. In details, the indistinguishability of single photons from the solid-state quantum emitter and spontaneous parametric down conversion is examined with two-photon Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometer. Moreover, experimental methods to enhance the indistinguishability are discussed, where the usage of spectral filter is highlighted.

Abstract:
Interference of photons emerging from independent sources is essential for modern quantum information processing schemes, above all quantum repeaters and linear-optics quantum computers. We report an observation of non-classical interference of two single photons originating from two independent, separated sources, which were actively synchronized with an r.m.s. timing jitter of 260 fs. The resulting (two-photon) interference visibility was 83(+/-)4 %.

Abstract:
A quantum system composed of two or more subsystems can be in an entangled state, i.e. a state in which the properties of the global system are well defined but the properties of each subsystem are not. Entanglement is at the heart of quantum physics, both for its conceptual foundations and for applications in information processing and quantum communication. Remarkably, entanglement can be "swapped": if one prepares two independent entangled pairs A1-A2 and B1-B2, a joint measurement on A1 and B1 (called a "Bell-State Measurement", BSM) has the effect of projecting A2 and B2 onto an entangled state, although these two particles have never interacted or shared any common past[1,2]. Experiments using twin photons produced by spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) have already demonstrated entanglement swapping[3-6], but here we present its first realization using continuous wave (CW) sources, as originally proposed[2]. The challenge was to achieve sufficiently sharp synchronization of the photons in the BSM. Using narrow-band filters, the coherence time of the photons that undergo the BSM is significantly increased, exceeding the temporal resolution of the detectors. Hence pulsed sources can be replaced by CW sources, which do not require any synchronization[6,7], allowing for the first time the use of completely autonomous sources. Our experiment exploits recent progress in the time precision of photon detectors, in the efficiency of photon pair production by SPDC with waveguides in nonlinear crystals[8], and in the stability of narrow-band filters. This approach is independent of the form of entanglement; we employed time-bin entangled photons[9] at telecom wavelengths. Our setup is robust against thermal or mechanical fluctuations in optical fibres thanks to cm-long coherence lengths.

Abstract:
In the framework of open quantum systems, the propagation of polarized photons can be effectively described using quantum dynamical semigroups. These extended time-evolutions induce irreversibility and dissipation. Planned, high sensitive experiments, both in the laboratory and in space, will be able to put stringent bounds on these non-standard effects.

Abstract:
We report a violation of Bell's inequality using one photon from a parametric down-conversion source and a second photon from an attenuated laser beam. The two photons were entangled at a beam splitter using the post-selection technique of Shih and Alley [Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2921 (1988)]. A quantum interference pattern with a visibility of 91% was obtained using the photons from these independent sources, as compared with a visibility of 99.4% using two photons from a central parametric down-conversion source.

Abstract:
We demonstrate quantum interference between photons generated by the radiative decay processes of excitons that are bound to isolated fluorine donor impurities in ZnSe/ZnMgSe quantum-well nanostructures. The ability to generate single photons from these devices is confirmed by auto-correlation experiments, and indistinguishability of single photons from two independent devices is confirmed via a Hong-Ou-Mandel dip. These results indicate that donor impurities in appropriately engineered semiconductor structures can portray atom-like homogeneity and coherence properties, potentially enabling scalable technologies for future large-scale optical quantum computers and quantum communication networks.

Abstract:
We present an experimental state-independent violation of an inequality for noncontextual theories on single particles. We show that 20 different single-photon states violate an inequality which involves correlations between results of sequential compatible measurements by at least 419 standard deviations. Our results show that, for any physical system, even for a single system, and independent of its state, there is a universal set of tests whose results do not admit a noncontextual interpretation. This sheds new light on the role of quantum mechanics in quantum information processing.

Abstract:
We show that the rest mass of a system consisting of two photons is a relativistic invariant having the same magnitude in all inertial reference frames in relative motion. A scenario which starts with two photons where theirs frequencies are equal to each other the magnitude of the rest mass of the system depends on the angle made by the momentums of the two photons. The behavior of the photons when detected from two inertial reference frames is illustrated using a relativistic diagram which displays in true values the physical quantities (scalar and vector) introduced in order to characterize the dynamical properties of the photon. We consider that the obtained results should be taken in the discussions, some time fierce, between those who ban the concept of relativistic mass and those who consider that its use is harmless.

Abstract:
Circadian rhythms and rest homeostasis are independent processes, each regulating important components of rest-activity patterns. Evolutionarily, the two are distinct from one another; total rest time is maintained unaffected even when circadian pacemaker cells are ablated. Throughout the animal kingdom, there exists a huge variation in rest-activity patterns, yet it is unclear how these behaviors have evolved. Here we show that four species of balitorid cavefish have greatly reduced rest times in comparison to rest times of their surface relatives. All four cave species retained biological rhythmicity, and in three of the four there is a pronounced 24-hour rhythm; in the fourth there is an altered rhythmicity of 38–40 hours. Thus, consistent changes in total rest have evolved in these species independent of circadian rhythmicity. Taken together, our data suggest that consistent reduction in total rest times were accomplished evolutionarily through alterations in rest homeostasis.

Abstract:
Bose-Einstein coalescence of independent photons at the surface of a beam splitter is the physical process that allows linear optical quantum gates to be built. When distinct parametric down-conversion events are used as an independent photon source, distinguishability arises form the energy correlation of each photon with its twin. We find that increasing the pump bandwidth may help in improving the visibility of non-classical interference and reaching a level of near perfect indistinguishability. PACS: 03.67.Mn, 42.65.Lm, 42.50.St.