Abstract:
Axisymmetric numerical simulations of rotating stellar core collapse to a neutron star are performed in the framework of full general relativity. The so-called Cartoon method, in which the Einstein field equations are solved in the Cartesian coordinates and the axisymmetric condition is imposed around the $y=0$ plane, is adopted. The hydrodynamic equations are solved in the cylindrical coordinates (on the $y=0$ plane in the Cartesian coordinates) using a high-resolution shock-capturing scheme with the maximum grid size $(2500,2500)$. A parametric equation of state is adopted to model collapsing stellar cores and neutron stars following Dimmelmeier et al. It is found that the evolution of central density during the collapse, bounce, and formation of protoneutron stars agree well with those in the work of Dimmelmeier et al. in which an approximate general relativistic formulation is adopted. This indicates that such approximation is appropriate for following axisymmetric stellar core collapses and subsequent formation of protoneutron stars. Gravitational waves are computed using a quadrupole formula. It is found that the waveforms are qualitatively in good agreement with those by Dimmelmeier et al. However, quantitatively, two waveforms do not agree well. Possible reasons for the disagreement are discussed.

Abstract:
Gravitational-wave emission from stellar collapse has been studied for nearly four decades. Current state-of-the-art numerical investigations of collapse include those that use progenitors with more realistic angular momentum profiles, properly treat microphysics issues, account for general relativity, and examine non-axisymmetric effects in three dimensions. Such simulations predict that gravitational waves from various phenomena associated with gravitational collapse could be detectable with ground-based and space-based interferometric observatories. This review covers the entire range of stellar collapse sources of gravitational waves: from the accretion-induced collapse of a white dwarf through the collapse down to neutron stars or black holes of massive stars to the collapse of supermassive stars.

Abstract:
Gravitational wave emission from the gravitational collapse of massive stars has been studied for more than three decades. Current state-of-the-art numerical investigations of collapse include those that use progenitors with more realistic angular momentum profiles, properly treat microphysics issues, account for general relativity, and examine non-axisymmetric effects in three dimensions. Such simulations predict that gravitational waves from various phenomena associated with gravitational collapse could be detectable with ground-based and space-based interferometric observatories.

Abstract:
Gravitational wave emission from the gravitational collapse of massive stars has been studied for more than three decades. Current state of the art numerical investigations of collapse include those that use progenitors with realistic angular momentum profiles, properly treat microphysics issues, account for general relativity, and examine non--axisymmetric effects in three dimensions. Such simulations predict that gravitational waves from various phenomena associated with gravitational collapse could be detectable with advanced ground--based and future space--based interferometric observatories.

Abstract:
Several applications of spectral methods to problems related to the relativistic astrophysics of compact objects are presented. Based on a proper definition of the analytical properties of regular tensorial functions we have developed a spectral method in a general sphericallike coordinate system. The applications include the investigation of spherically symmetric neutron star collapse as well as the solution of the coupled 2D-Einstein-Maxwell equations for magnetized, rapidly rotating neutron stars. In both cases the resulting codes are efficient and give results typically several orders of magnitude more accurate than equivalent codes based on finite difference schemes. We further report the current status of a 3D-code aiming at the simulation of non-axisymmetric neutron star collapse where we have chosen a tensor based numerical scheme.

Abstract:
The new generation of gravitational wave (GW) detectors have the potential to open a novel window onto the violent dynamics of core collapse. Although it is certain that core collapse events generate gravitational radiation, understanding the characteristics of the radiation -- whether it can be measured with these detectors, and the best way to go about doing so -- is a challenging problem. In this chapter we review the promise of GWs as observational probes, including a discussion of the current state of GW detectors, and discuss the status of work to understand the waves generated by stellar core collapse.

Abstract:
We report on a systematic study of the dynamics of gravitational waves in full 3D numerical relativity. We find that there exists an interesting regime in the parameter space of the wave configurations: a near-linear regime in which the amplitude of the wave is low enough that one expects the geometric deviation from flat spacetime to be negligible, but nevertheless where nonlinearities can excite unstable modes of the Einstein evolution equations causing the metric functions to evolve out of control. The implications of this for numerical relativity are discussed.

Abstract:
An axisymmetric collapse of non-rotating gravitational waves is numerically investigated in the subcritical regime where no black holes form but where curvature attains a maximum and decreases, following the dispersion of the initial wave packet. We focus on a curvature invariant with dimensions of length, and find that near the threshold for black hole formation it reaches a maximum along concentric rings of finite radius around the axis. In this regime the maximal value of the invariant exhibits a power-law scaling with the approximate exponent 0.38, as a function of a parametric distance from the threshold. In addition, the variation of the curvature in the critical limit is accompanied by increasing amount of echos, with nearly equal temporal and spatial periods. The scaling and the echoing patterns, and the corresponding constants, are independent of the initial data and coordinate choices.

Abstract:
We present results from the first 2D and 3D simulations of the collapse of rotating stellar iron cores in general relativity employing a finite-temperature equation of state and an approximate treatment of deleptonization during collapse. We compare fully nonlinear and conformally flat spacetime evolution methods and find that the conformally flat treatment is sufficiently accurate for the core-collapse supernova problem. We focus on the gravitational wave (GW) emission from rotating collapse, core bounce, and early postbounce phases. Our results indicate that the GW signature of these phases is much more generic than previously estimated. In addition, we track the growth of a nonaxisymmetric instability of dominant m = 1 character in one of our models that leads to prolonged narrow-band GW emission at ~930 Hz over several tens of milliseconds.

Abstract:
We study the matching conditions for a collapsing anisotropic cylindrical perfect fluid, and we show that its radial pressure is non zero on the surface of the cylinder and proportional to the time dependent part of the field produced by the collapsing fluid. This result resembles the one that arises for the radiation - though non-gravitational - in the spherically symmetric collapsing dissipative fluid, in the diffusion approximation.