Abstract:
Supersymmetric models with a high supersymmetry breaking scale give, in general, large contributions to epsilon_K and/or to various electric dipole moments, even when contributions to CP conserving, flavor changing processes are sufficiently suppressed. Some examples are models of dilaton dominance, alignment, non-Abelian flavor symmetries, heavy first two generation sfermions, anomaly mediation and gaugino mediation. There is then strong motivation for `approximate CP', that is a situation where all CP violating phases are small. In contrast, in supersymmetric models with a low breaking scale it is quite plausible that the CKM matrix is the only source of flavor and CP violation. Gauge mediation provides a concrete example. Approximate CP is then unacceptable. Upcoming measurements of the CP asymmetry in B to \psi K_S might exclude or support the idea of approximate CP and consequently probe the scale of supersymmetry breaking.

Abstract:
The possibility of spontaneous breaking of CP symmetry by the expectation values of orbifold moduli is investigated with particular reference to $CP$ violating phases in soft supersymmetry breaking terms. The effect of different mechanisms for stabilizing the dilaton and the form of the non-perturbative superpotential on the existence and size of these phases is studied. Non-perturbative superpotentials involving the absolute modular invariant $j(T)$, such as may arise from F-theory compactifications, are considered.

Abstract:
A spontaneously-broken CP provides an alternative to the KM mechanism for CP violation with the advantage that the strong CP problem is solved. We consider, for such a model with a new gauged U(1), the incorporation of low-energy supersymmetry and find the constraints on alignment and squark degeneracy. The conclusion is that although the $\bar{\theta}$ constraints are much less severe than in other generic schemes with supersymmetry breaking and spontaneous CP violation, one restriction remains stronger than needed in the MSSM for suppression of FCNC.

Abstract:
We point out that the hierarchy between the measured values of the CKM phase and the strong CP phase has a natural origin in supersymmetry with spontaneous CP violation and low energy supersymmetry breaking. The underlying reason is simple and elegant: in supersymmetry the strong CP phase is protected by an exact non-renormalization theorem while the CKM phase is not. We present explicit examples of models which exploit this fact and discuss corrections to the non-renormalization theorem in the presence of supersymmetry breaking. This framework for solving the strong CP problem has generic predictions for the superpartner spectrum, for CP and flavor violation, and predicts a preferred range of values for electric dipole moments.

Abstract:
We investigate the effects of the spontaneous CP violation at finite temperature in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model on the baryogenesis at the weak scale. After a brief discussion of the case in which the electroweak phase transition is of the second order, we study in details the baryogenesis scenario when the transition proceeds via bubble nucleation. We show that the space-time dependent phase for the Higgs vacuum expectation values coming from the spontaneous CP violation can give rise to a efficient generation of baryon number inside the bubble walls if the superpotential parameters and the soft supersymmetry breaking ones are complex. However we find that in order to get the observed value for the baryon asymmetry of the universe the phases of such parameters can be as small as $10^{-5}$, giving rise to an electron dipole moment of the neutron well below the current experimental limit. Moreover a light Higgs pseudoscalar is needed, and an upper bound on its mass is obtained.

Abstract:
We point out the possibility of spontaneous and hard CP-violation in the scalar potential of R-parity broken supersymmetric Standard Model. The existence of spontaneous CP-violation depends crucially on the R-parity breaking terms in the superpotential and, in addition, on the choice of the soft supersymmetry breaking terms. Unlike in theories with R-parity conservation, it is natural, in the context of the present model, for the sneutrinos to acquire (complex) vacuum expectation values. In the context of this model we examine here the global implications, like the strength of the CP-violating interactions and the neutrino masses.

Abstract:
We find that dilaton dominated supersymmetry breaking and spontaneous CP violation can be achieved in heterotic string models with superpotentials singular at the fixed points of the modular group. A semi--realistic picture of CP violation emerges in such models: the CKM phase appears due to a complex VEV of the T-modulus, while the soft supersymmetric CP phases are absent due to an axionic--type symmetry.

Abstract:
The CP-violating phases in the soft supersymmetry-breaking sector in orbifold compactifications with a continuous Wilson line are investigated. In this case the modular symmetry is the Siegel modular group $Sp(4,Z)$ of genus two. In particular, we study the case that the hidden sector non-perturbative superpotential is determined by the Igusa cusp form ${\cal C}_{12}$ of modular weight 12. The effect of large non-perturbative corrections to the dilaton K\"ahler potential on the resulting CP-violating phases is also investigated.

Abstract:
The CP parameters $\epsilon$ and $\epsilon'/\epsilon$ are calculated in the aspon model of spontaneous CP violation, a model which solves the strong CP problem. A new range for the scale of spontaneous breaking of CP is found. It is shown that $\epsilon'/\epsilon$ is suppressed by $\sim x^2 v^2/(\kappa^2 \sin^5 \theta_C) \sim 5 \times 10^{-3}$ relative to the Standard Model. If experiment finds that $\epsilon'/\epsilon$ is $10^{-4}$ or greater in magnitude, it will mean that the present approach to spontaneous CP violation is excluded.

Abstract:
When the strong CP problem is solved by spontaneous breaking of an anomalous global symmetry in theories with gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking, the pseudo Goldstone fermion (the axino) is a good candidate of a light sterile neutrino. Its mixing with neutrinos relevant for current neutrino experiments can arise in the presence of R-parity violation. The realistic four neutrino mass matrix is obtained when the see-saw mechanism is brought in, and an ansatz for the right-handed neutrino mass is constructed.