Abstract:
We discuss the decay of axion walls bounded by strings and present numerical simulations of the decay process. In these simulations, the decay happens immediately, in a time scale of order the light travel time, and the average energy of the radiated axions is $<\omega_a > \simeq 7 m_a$ for $v_a/m_a\simeq 500$. $<\omega_a>$ is found to increase approximately linearly with $\ln(v_a/m_a)$. Extrapolation of this behaviour yields $<\omega_a> \simeq 60 m_a$ in axion models of interest.

Abstract:
We analyze the spectrum of axions radiated from collapse of domain walls, which have received less attention in the literature. The evolution of topological defects related to the axion models is investigated by performing field-theoretic lattice simulations. We simulate the whole process of evolution of the defects, including the formation of global strings, the formation of domain walls and the annihilation of the defects due to the tension of walls. The spectrum of radiated axions has a peak at the low frequency, which implies that axions produced by the collapse of domain walls are not highly relativistic. We revisit the relic abundance of cold dark matter axions and find that the contribution from the decay of defects can be comparable with the contribution from strings. This result leads to a more severe upper bound on the axion decay constant.

Abstract:
We calculate the dilution of the baryon-to-photon ratio by the decay of superstring axions. We find that the dilution is of the order of $10^7$. We review several models of baryogenesis and show that most of them can not tolerate such a large dilution. In particular, only one current model of electroweak baryogenesis possibly survives. The Affleck-Dine mechanism in SUSY GUTs is very robust and the dilution by axions could contribute to the dilution required in these models. Baryogenesis scenarios involving topological defects and black hole evaporation are also capable of producing a sufficiently large baryon asymmetry.

Abstract:
We study Higgs production and decay from TeV scale string balls in $pp$ collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 14 TeV at LHC. We present the results of total cross section of diphotons, invariant mass distribution of the diphotons and $p_T$ distribution of the diphotons and $ZZ$ pairs from Higgs from string balls at LHC. We find that the invariant mass distribution of diphotons from Higgs from string balls is not very sensitive to the increase in diphoton invariant mass. We find that for string mass scale $M_s$=2.5 TeV, which is the lower limit of the string mass scale set by the recent CMS collaboration at LHC, the $\frac{d\sigma}{dp_T}$ of high $p_T$ ($\ge$ 450 GeV) diphotons and $ZZ$ pairs produced from Higgs from string balls is larger than that from standard model Higgs. Hence in the absence of black hole production at LHC an enhancement of high $p_T$ diphotons and $ZZ$ pairs at LHC can be useful signatures for string theory at LHC. Since the matrix element for Higgs production in parton-parton collisions via string regge excitations is not available we compute $\frac{d\sigma}{dp_T}$ of photon production from string regge excitations and make a comparison with that from string balls at LHC. We find that for string mass scale $M_s$ = 2.5 TeV the $\frac{d\sigma_{photon}}{dp_T}$ from string regge excitations is larger than that from string balls and black holes at LHC.

Abstract:
String theory suggests the simultaneous presence of many ultralight axions possibly populating each decade of mass down to the Hubble scale 10^-33eV. Conversely the presence of such a plenitude of axions (an "axiverse") would be evidence for string theory, since it arises due to the topological complexity of the extra-dimensional manifold and is ad hoc in a theory with just the four familiar dimensions. We investigate how upcoming astrophysical experiments will explore the existence of such axions over a vast mass range from 10^-33eV to 10^-10eV. Axions with masses between 10^-33eV to 10^-28eV cause a rotation of the CMB polarization that is constant throughout the sky. The predicted rotation angle is of order \alpha~1/137. Axions in the mass range 10^-28eV to 10^-18eV give rise to multiple steps in the matter power spectrum, that will be probed by upcoming galaxy surveys. Axions in the mass range 10^-22eV to 10^-10eV affect the dynamics and gravitational wave emission of rapidly rotating astrophysical black holes through the Penrose superradiance process. When the axion Compton wavelength is of order of the black hole size, the axions develop "superradiant" atomic bound states around the black hole "nucleus". Their occupation number grows exponentially by extracting rotational energy from the ergosphere, culminating in a rotating Bose-Einstein axion condensate emitting gravitational waves. This mechanism creates mass gaps in the spectrum of rapidly rotating black holes that diagnose the presence of axions. The rapidly rotating black hole in the X-ray binary LMC X-1 implies an upper limit on the decay constant of the QCD axion f_a<2*10^17GeV, much below the Planck mass. This reach can be improved down to the grand unification scale f_a<2*10^16GeV, by observing smaller stellar mass black holes.

Abstract:
String theory posesses numerous axion candidates. The recent realization that the compactification radius in string theory might be large means that these states can solve the strong CP problem. This still leaves the question of the cosmological bound on the axion mass. Here we explore two schemes for accommodating such light axions in cosmology. In the first, we note that in string theory the universe is likely to be dominated early on by the coherent oscillations of some moduli. The usual moduli problem assumes that these fields have masses comparable to the gravitino. We argue that string moduli are likely to be substantially more massive, eliminating this problem. In such cosmologies the axion bound is significantly weakened. Plausible mechanisms for generating the baryon number density are described. In the second, we point out that in string theory, the axion potentials might be much larger at early times than at present. In string theory, if CP violation is described by a small parameter, the axion may sit sufficiently close to its true minimum to invalidate the bounds.

Abstract:
We discuss the appearance at the QCD phase transition, and the subsequent decay, of axion walls bounded by strings in N=1 axion models. We argue on intuitive grounds that the main decay mechanism is into barely relativistic axions. We present numerical simulations of the decay process. In these simulations, the decay happens immediately, in a time scale of order the light travel time, and the average energy of the radiated axions is $<\omega_a > \simeq 7 m_a$ for $v_a/m_a \simeq 500$. $<\omega_a>$ is found to increase approximately linearly with $\ln(v_a/m_a)$. Extrapolation of this behaviour yields $<\omega_a> \sim 60 m_a$ in axion models of interest. We find that the contribution to the cosmological energy density of axions from wall decay is of the same order of magnitude as that from vacuum realignment, with however large uncertainties. The velocity dispersion of axions from wall decay is found to be larger, by a factor $10^3$ or so, than that of axions from vacuum realignment and string decay. We discuss the implications of this for the formation and evolution of axion miniclusters and for the direct detection of axion dark matter on Earth. Finally we discuss the cosmology of axion models with $N>1$ in which the domain wall problem is solved by introducing a small U$_{PQ}$(1) breaking interaction. We find that in this case the walls decay into gravitational waves.

Abstract:
The decay constant of the QCD axion is required by observation to be small compared to the Planck scale. In theories of "natural inflation," and certain proposed anthropic solutions of the cosmological constant problem, it would be interesting to obtain a large decay constant for axion-like fields from microscopic physics. String theory is the only context in which one can sensibly address this question. Here we survey a number of periodic fields in string theory in a variety of string vacua. In some examples, the decay constant can be parameterically larger than the Planck scale but the effective action then contains appreciable harmonics of order $f_A/M_p$. As a result, these fields are no better inflaton candidates than Planck scale axions.

Abstract:
Axions are produced during a period of dilaton-driven inflation by amplification of quantum fluctuations. We show that for some range of string cosmology parameters and some range of axion masses, primordial axions may constitute a large fraction of the present energy density in the universe in the form of cold dark matter. Due to the periodic nature of the axion potential energy density fluctuations are strongly suppressed. The spectrum of primordial axions is not thermal, allowing a small fraction of the axions to remain relativistic until quite late.

Abstract:
We present an explicit embedding of axionic N-flation in type IIB string compactifications where most of the Kahler moduli are stabilised by perturbative effects, and so are hierarchically heavier than the corresponding N >> 1 axions whose collective dynamics drives inflation. This is achieved in the framework of the LARGE Volume Scenario for moduli stabilisation. Our set-up can be used to realise a model of either inflation or quintessence, just by varying the volume of the internal space which controls the scale of the axionic potential. Both cases predict a very high scale of supersymmetry breaking. A viable reheating of the Standard Model degrees of freedom can be achieved after the end of inflation due to the perturbative decay of the N light axions which drive inflation.