Abstract:
We apply the theory of elasticity to study the effects of skyrmion mass on lattice dynamics in quantum Hall systems. We find that massive Skyrme lattices behave like a Wigner crystal in the presence of a uniform perpendicular magnetic field. We make a comparison with the microscopic Hartree-Fock results to characterize the mass of quantum Hall skyrmions at $\nu=1$ and investigate how the low temperature phase of Skyrme lattices may be affected by the skyrmion mass.

Abstract:
We discuss the behaviour of a quantum Hall system when two Landau levels with opposite spin and combined filling factor near unity are brought into energetic coincidence using an in-plane component of magnetic field. We focus on the interpretation of recent experiments under these conditions [Zeitler et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 866 (2001); Pan et al, Phys. Rev. B 64, 121305 (2001)], in which a large resistance anisotropy develops at low temperatures. Modelling the systems involved as Ising quantum Hall ferromagnets, we suggest that this transport anisotropy reflects domain formation induced by a random field arising from isotropic sample surface roughness.

Abstract:
We present a quantum field theoretical analysis of a $\nu = 1$ quantum Hall system when the effective Land\'e $g$ factor is small. We clearly demonstrate that the ground state of the system is ferromagnetic. We note that it is the short range component of the Coulomb interaction which is instrumental in aligning the spins. We then go on to derive the effective lagrangian for the lowest lying spin excitations. At the leading order, apart from the usual O(3) sigma model terms, we find a term proportional to the Pontryagin density and a long range Coulomb interaction term between these densities. Beyond the leading order in the derivative expansion, we find an interesting Chern-Simons term constructed out of the basic spin variables. For low enough energies, however, we notice that the effects of mixing of higher Landau levels is more important than the next to leading terms in the derivative expansion. We provide a systematic way of calculating these corrections.

Abstract:
We report on a study of the classical field theory description of charged skyrmions in quantum Hall ferromagnets. The appropriate field theory is a non-linear $\sigma$ model generalized to include Coulomb and Zeeman interaction terms. We have tested the range of validity of the classical field theory by comparing with microscopic descriptions of the single skyrmion state based on the Hartree-Fock approximation, exact diagonalization calculations, and many-body trial wavefunctions. We find that the field theory description is accurate for skyrmions with moderate spin quantum numbers ($\gtrsim 10$) although, as expected, it fails qualitatively for small spin quantum numbers.

Abstract:
We examine the Si(111) multi-valley quantum Hall system and show that it exhibits an exceptionally rich interplay of broken symmetries and quantum Hall ordering already near integer fillings $\nu$ in the range $\nu=0-6$. This six-valley system has a large $[SU(2)]^3\rtimes D_3$ symmetry in the limit where the magnetic length is much larger than the lattice constant. We find that the discrete ${D}_3$ factor breaks over a broad range of fillings at a finite temperature transition to a discrete nematic phase. As $T \rightarrow 0$ the $[SU(2)]^3$ continuous symmetry also breaks: completely near $\nu =3$, to a residual $[U(1)]^2\times SU(2)$ near $\nu=2$ and $4$ and to a residual $U(1)\times [SU(2)]^2$ near $\nu=1$ and $5$. Interestingly, the symmetry breaking near $\nu=2,4$ and $\nu=3$ involves a combination of selection by thermal fluctuations known as "order by disorder" and a selection by the energetics of Skyrme lattices induced by moving away from the commensurate fillings, a mechanism we term "order by doping". We also exhibit modestly simpler analogs in the four-valley Si(110) system.

Abstract:
It is pointed out recently that the $\nu=1/m$ quantum Hall states in bilayer systems behave like easy plane quantum ferromagnets. We study the magnetotransport of these systems using their ``ferromagnetic" properties and a novel spin-charge relation of their excitations. The general transport is a combination of the ususal Hall transport and a time dependent transport with $quantized$ time average. The latter is due to a phase slippage process in $spacetime$ and is characterized by two topological constants. (Figures will be provided upon requests).

Abstract:
We show that the sign of magnetic anisotropy energy in quantum Hall ferromagnets is determined by a competition between electrostatic and exchange energies. Easy-axis ferromagnets tend to occur when Landau levels whose states have similar spatial profiles cross. We report measurements of integer QHE evolution with magnetic-field tilt. Reentrant behavior observed for the $\nu = 4$ QHE at high tilt angles is attributed to easy-axis anisotropy. This interpretation is supported by a detailed calculation of the magnetic anisotropy energy.

Abstract:
The two-dimensional interacting electron gas at Landau level filling factor $\nu =1$ and temperature $T=0$ is a strong ferromagnet; all spins are completely aligned by arbitrarily weak Zeeman coupling. We report on a theoretical study of its thermodynamic properties using a many-body perturbation theory approach and concentrating on the recently measured temperature dependence of the spin magnetization. We discuss the interplay of collective and single-particle aspects of the physics and the opportunities for progress in our understanding of itinerant electron ferromagnetism presented by quantum Hall ferromagnets.

Abstract:
At Landau level filling factors near nu =1, quantum Hall ferromagnets form a Skyrme crystal state with quasi-long-range translational and non-collinear magnetic order. We develop an effective low energy theory which explains the presence in these systems of magnetic excitations at low energies below the Larmor gap (Delta) and which predicts a dramatic enhancement of the nuclear spin relaxation rate by a factor of 1000. The effective theory predicts a rich set of quantum and classical phase transitions. Based in part on accurate time-dependent Hartree-Fock calculations of the ordered state collective excitation spectrum, we discuss aspects of the T-nu-Delta crystal phase diagram.

Abstract:
We consider interacting bosonic atoms in an optical lattice subject to a large simulated magnetic field. We develop a model similar to a bilayer fractional quantum Hall system valid near simple rational numbers of magnetic flux quanta per lattice cell. Then we calculate its ground state, magnetic lengths, fractional fillings, and find unexpected sign changes in the Hall current. Finally we study methods for detecting these novel features via shot noise and Hall current measurements.