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 Physics , 2015, Abstract: Even in simple geometries many complex fluids display non-trivial flow fields, with regions where shear is concentrated. The possibility for such shear banding has been known since several decades, but the recent years have seen an upsurge of studies offering an ever more precise understanding of the phenomenon. The development of new techniques to probe the flow on multiple scales and with increasing spatial and temporal resolution has opened the possibility for a synthesis of the many phenomena that could only have been thought of separately before. In this review, we bring together recent research on shear banding in polymeric and on soft glassy materials, and highlight their similarities and disparities.
 Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.78.051504 Abstract: Shear banding is an important feature of flow in complex fluids. Essentially, shear bands refer to the coexistence of flowing and non-flowing regions in driven material. Understanding the possible sources of shear banding has important implications for a wide range of flow applications. In this regard, quasi-two dimensional flow offers a unique opportunity to study competing factors that result in shear bands. One proposal is the competition between intrinsic dissipation and an external source of dissipation. In this paper, we report on the experimental observation of the transition between different classes of shear-bands that have been predicted to exist in cylindrical geometry as the result of this competition [R. J. Clancy, E. Janiaud, D. Weaire, and S. Hutzlet, Eur. J. Phys. E, {\bf 21}, 123 (2006)].
 S. Manneville Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1007/s00397-007-0246-z Abstract: Recent experimental techniques used to investigate shear banding are reviewed. After recalling the rheological signature of shear-banded flows, we summarize the various tools for measuring locally the microstructure and the velocity field under shear. Local velocity measurements using dynamic light scattering and ultrasound are emphasized. A few results are extracted from current works to illustrate open questions and directions for future research.
 Physics , 2006, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.96.088301 Abstract: We report on the spatio-temporal dynamics of the interface in shear-banding flow of a wormlike micellar system (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and sodium nitrate in water) during a start-up experiment. Using the scattering properties of the induced structures, we demonstrate the existence of an instability of the interface between bands along the vorticity direction. Different regimes of spatio-temporal dynamics of the interface are indentified along the stress plateau. We build a model based on the flow symetry which qualitatively describes the observed patterns.
 Suzanne M. Fielding Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1088/0034-4885/77/10/102601 Abstract: Many soft materials, including foams, dense emulsions, micro gel bead suspensions, star polymers, dense packing of surfactant onion micelles, and textured morphologies of liquid crystals, share the basic "glassy" features of structural disorder and metastability. These in turn give rise to several notable features in the low frequency shear rheology (deformation and flow properties) of these materials: in particular, the existence of a yield stress below which the material behaves like a solid, and above which it flows like a liquid. In the last decade, intense experimental activity has also revealed that these materials often display a phenomenon known as shear banding, in which the flow profile across the shear cell exhibits macroscopic bands of different viscosity. Two distinct classes of yield stress fluid have been identified: those in which the shear bands apparently persist permanently (for as long as the flow remains applied), and those in which banding arises only transiently during a process in which a steady flowing state is established out of an initial rest state (for example, in a shear startup or step stress experiment). After surveying the motivating experimental data, we describe recent progress in addressing it theoretically, using the soft glassy rheology model and a simple fluidity model. We also briefly place these theoretical approaches in the context of others in the literature, including elasto-plastic models, shear transformation zone theories, and molecular dynamics simulations. We discuss finally some challenges that remain open to theory and experiment alike.
 Physics , 2015, Abstract: Generation of few-cycle optical vortex pulses is challenging due to the large spectral bandwidths, as most vortex generation techniques are designed for monochromatic light. In this work, we use a spiral phase plate to generate few-cycle optical vortices from an ultrafast titanium:sapphire oscillator, and characterize them in the spatiotemporal domain using a recently introduced technique based on spatially resolved Fourier transform spectrometry. The performance of this simple approach to the generation of optical vortices is analyzed from a wavelength dependent perspective, as well as in the spatiotemporal domain, allowing us to completely characterize ultrashort vortex pulses in space, frequency, and time.
 Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.104.178303 Abstract: We study the dynamics of the Taylor-Couette flow of shear banding wormlike micelles. We focus on the high shear rate branch of the flow curve and show that for sufficiently high Weissenberg numbers, this branch becomes unstable. This instability is strongly sub-critical and is associated with a shear stress jump. We find that this increase of the flow resistance is related to the nucleation of turbulence. The flow pattern shows similarities with the elastic turbulence, so far only observed for polymer solutions. The unstable character of this branch led us to propose a scenario that could account for the recent observations of Taylor-like vortices during the shear banding flow of wormlike micelles.
 Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.90.228303 Abstract: Using Dynamic Light Scattering in heterodyne mode, we measure velocity profiles in a much studied system of wormlike micelles (CPCl/NaSal) known to exhibit both shear-banding and stress plateau behavior. Our data provide evidence for the simplest shear-banding scenario, according to which the effective viscosity drop in the system is due to the nucleation and growth of a highly sheared band in the gap, whose thickness linearly increases with the imposed shear rate. We discuss various details of the velocity profiles in all the regions of the flow curve and emphasize on the complex, non-Newtonian nature of the flow in the highly sheared band.
 Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1122/1.2750665 Abstract: Wormlike micelle solutions are submitted to small-amplitude oscillatory shear superimposed to steady shear in the shear banding regime. By imposing a shear oscillation, the interface between high- and low-shear regions oscillates in time. A two-fluid semi-phenomenological model is proposed for superposition rheology in the shear banding regime, which allows us to extract a characteristic velocity for the interface dynamics from experiments involving only a standard rheometer. Estimates of the stress diffusion coefficient ${\cal D}$ can also be inferred from such superposition experiments. The validity of our model is confirmed by directly recording the interface displacement using ultrasonic velocimetry.
 Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.103.178301 Abstract: We study the emergence of a yield stress in dense suspensions of non-Brownian particles, by combining local velocity and concentration measurements using Magnetic Resonance Imaging with macroscopic rheometric experiments. We show that the competition between gravity and viscous stresses is at the origin of the development of a yield stress in these systems at relatively low volume fractions. Moreover, it is accompanied by a shear banding phenomenon that is the signature of this competition. However, if the system is carefully density matched, no yield stress is encountered until a volume fraction of 62.7 0.3%.
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