Abstract:
In this work we study the heat transport in an XXZ spin-1/2 Heisenberg chain with homogeneous magnetic field, incoherently driven out of equilibrium by reservoirs at the boundaries. We focus on the effect of bulk dephasing (energy-dissipative) processes in different parameter regimes of the system. The non-equilibrium steady state of the chain is obtained by simulating its evolution under the corresponding Lindblad master equation, using the time evolving block decimation method. In the absence of dephasing, the heat transport is ballistic for weak interactions, while being diffusive in the strongly-interacting regime, as evidenced by the heat-current scaling with the system size. When bulk dephasing takes place in the system, diffusive transport is induced in the weakly-interacting regime, with the heat current monotonically decreasing with the dephasing rate. In contrast, in the strongly-interacting regime, the heat current can be significantly enhanced by dephasing for systems of small size.

Abstract:
We study finite-temperature magnetization transport in a one-dimensional anisotropic Heisenberg model, focusing in particular on the gapped phase. Using numerical simulations by two different methods, a propagation of localized wavepackets and a study of nonequilibrium steady states of a master equation in a linear-response regime, we conclude that the transport at finite temperatures is diffusive. With decreasing temperature the diffusion constant increases, possibly exponentially fast. This means that at low temperatures the transition from ballistic to asymptotic diffusive behavior happens at very long times. We also study dynamics of initial domain wall like states, showing that on the attainable time scales they remain localized.

Abstract:
We analytically and numerically study spin transport in a one-dimensional Heisenberg model in linear-response regime at infinite temperature. It is shown that as the anisotropy parameter Delta is varied spin transport changes from ballistic for Delta<1 to anomalous at the isotropic point Delta=1, to diffusive for finite Delta>1, ending up as a perfect isolator in the Ising limit of infinite Delta. Using perturbation theory for large Delta a quantitative prediction is made for the dependence of diffusion constant on Delta.

Abstract:
This work concerns the modeling of radiative transfer in anisotropic turbid media using diffusion theory. A theory for the relationship between microscopic scattering properties (i.e., an arbitrary differential scattering cross-section) and the macroscopic diffusion tensor, in the limit of independent scatterers, is presented. The theory is accompanied by a numerical method capable of performing the calculations. In addition, a boundary condition appropriate for modeling systems with anisotropic radiance is derived. It is shown that anisotropic diffusion theory, when based on these developments, indeed can describe radiative transfer in anisotropic turbid media. More specifically, it is reported that solutions to the anisotropic diffusion equation are in excellent agreement with Monte Carlo simulations, both in steady-state and time-domain. This stands in contrast to previous work on the topic, where inadequate boundary conditions and/or incorrect relations between microscopic scattering properties and the diffusion tensor have caused disagreement between simulations and diffusion theory. The present work thus falsify previous claims that anisotropic diffusion theory cannot describe anisotropic radiative transfer, and instead open for accurate quantitative diffusion-based modeling of anisotropic turbid materials.

Abstract:
The purpose of this note is to connect early work on thermal transport in spin-1/2 Heisenberg chains with uniaxial exchange anisotropy and nearest-neighbor interactions that was based on a moment analysis of the Fourier transform of the energy density correlation function with subsequent studies that make use of thermal current correlation functions.

Abstract:
Excitonic transport in static disordered one dimensional systems is studied in the presence of thermal fluctuations that are described by the Haken-Strobl-Reineker model. For short times, non-diffusive behavior is observed that can be characterized as the free-particle dynamics in the Anderson localized system. Over longer time scales, the environment-induced dephasing is sufficient to overcome the Anderson localization caused by the disorder and allow for transport to occur which is always seen to be diffusive. In the limiting regimes of weak and strong dephasing quantum master equations are developed, and their respective scaling relations imply the existence of a maximum in the diffusion constant as a function of the dephasing rate that is confirmed numerically. In the weak dephasing regime, it is demonstrated that the diffusion constant is proportional to the square of the localization length which leads to a significant enhancement of the transport rate over the classical prediction. Finally, the influence of noise and disorder on the absorption spectrum is presented and its relationship to the transport properties is discussed.

Abstract:
Diffusion, a ubiquitous phenomenon in nature, is a consequence of particle number conservation and locality, in systems with sufficient damping. In this paper we consider diffusive processes in the bulk of Weyl semimetals, which are exotic quantum materials, recently of considerable interest. In order to do this, we first explicitly implement the analytical scheme by which disorder with anisotropic scattering amplitude is incorporated into the diagrammatic response-function formalism for calculating the `diffuson'. The result thus obtained is consistent with transport coefficients evaluated from the Boltzmann transport equation or the renormalized uniform current vertex calculation, as it should be. We thus demonstrate that the computation of the diffusion coefficient should involve the transport lifetime, and not the quasiparticle lifetime. Using this method, we then calculate the density response function in Weyl semimetals and discover an unconventional diffusion process that is significantly slower than conventional diffusion. This gives rise to relaxation processes that exhibit stretched exponential decay, instead of the usual exponential diffusive relaxation. This result is then explained using a model of thermally excited quasiparticles diffusing with diffusion coefficients which are strongly dependent on their energies. We elucidate the roles of the various energy and time scales involved in this novel process and propose an experiment by which this process may be observed.

Abstract:
We study transport properties of a disordered tight-binding model (XX spin chain) in the presence of dephasing. Focusing on diffusive behavior in the thermodynamic limit at high energies, we analytically derive the dependence of conductivity on dephasing and disorder strengths. As a function of dephasing, conductivity exhibits a single maximum at the optimal dephasing strength. The scaling of the position of this maximum with disorder strength is different for small and large disorder. In addition, we study periodic disorder for which we find a resonance phenomenon, with conductivity having two maxima as a function of dephasing strength. If disorder is nonzero only at a random fraction of all sites, conductivity is approximately the same as in the case of a disorder on all sites but with a rescaled disorder strength.

Abstract:
We study the non-equilibrium transport properties of a highly anisotropic two-dimensional lattice of spin-1/2 particles governed by a Heisenberg XXZ Hamiltonian. The anisotropy of the lattice allows us to approximate the system at finite temperature as an array of incoherently coupled one-dimensional chains. We show that in the regime of strong intrachain interactions, the weak interchain coupling considerably boosts spin transport in the driven system. Interestingly, we show that this enhancement increases with the length of the chains, which is related to superdiffusive spin transport. We describe the mechanism behind this effect, compare it to a similar phenomenon in single chains induced by dephasing, and explain why the former is much stronger.

Abstract:
We analyze and compare the effect of spatial and spin anisotropy on spin conductivity in a two dimensional S=1/2 Heisenberg quantum magnet on a square lattice. We explore the model in both the Neel antiferromagnetic (AF) phase and the collinear antiferromagnetic (CAF) phase. We find that in contrast to the effects of spin anisotropy in the Heisenberg model, spatial anisotropy in the AF phase does not suppress the zero temperature regular part of the spin conductivity in the zero frequency limit - rather it enhances it. We also explore the finite temperature effects on the Drude weight in the AF phase for various spatial and spin anisotropy parameters. We find that the Drude weight goes to zero as the temperature approaches zero. At finite temperatures (within the collision less approximation) enhancing spatial anisotropy increases the Drude weight value and increasing spin anisotropy decreases the Drude weight value. In the CAF phase (within the non-interacting approximation) the zero frequency spin conductivity has a finite value for non-zero values of the spatial anisotropy parameter. In the CAF phase increasing the spatial anisotropy parameter suppresses the regular part of the spin conductivity response at zero frequency. Furthermore, we find that the CAF phase displays a spike in the spin conductivity not seen in the AF phase. Inclusion of the smallest amount of spin anisotropy causes a gap to develop in the spin conductivity response of both the AF and CAF phase. Based on these studies we conclude that materials with spatial anisotropy are better spin conductors than those with spin anisotropy both at zero and finite temperatures. We utilize exchange parameter ratios for real material systems as inputs to the computation of spin conductivity.