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Thermo-charged capacitors and the Second Law of Thermodynamics  [PDF]
Germano D'Abramo
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1016/j.physleta.2010.02.056
Abstract: In this Letter we describe a vacuum spherical capacitor that generates a macroscopic voltage between its spheres harnessing the heat from a single thermal reservoir at room temperature. The basic idea is trivial and it makes use of two concentric spherical electrodes with different work functions. We provide a mathematical analysis of the underlying physical process and discuss its connections with the Second Law of Thermodynamics.
The Paradox of Two Charged Capacitors -- A New Perspective  [PDF]
Ashok K. Singal
Physics , 2013,
Abstract: It is shown that the famous paradox of two charged capacitors is successfully resolved if all the energy changes in the system are properly considered when some of the charges are transferred from one capacitor to the other. It happens so even when the connecting wire has an identically zero resistance, giving rise to no Ohmic losses in the wire. It is shown that in such a case the "missing energy" goes into the kinetic energy of conducting charges. It is shown that radiation plays no significant role in resolving the paradox. The problem can be formulated and successfully resolved in a novel form, where the capacitance of the system is increased by stretching the plates of the original capacitor, without involving any connecting wires in a circuit. There is an outward self-force due to mutual repulsion among charges stored within each capacitor plate, and the work done by these self-forces during an expansion is indeed equal to the missing energy of the capacitor system.
"Closed-loop" analysis of a thermo-charged capacitor  [PDF]
Germano D'Abramo
Physics , 2014,
Abstract: In this Letter, an explicit application of conservation of energy and zero net work principle around a closed path ("closed-loop" analysis) is carried out on a thermo-charged capacitor at equilibrium with ambient heat at uniform temperature. This analysis corroborates the results of previous studies [Phys.Lett.A 374 (2010) 1801, Physica A 390 (2011) 481] that a potential drop $\Delta V$ does actually occur at capacitor terminals. Finally, a conventional photoelectric emission experiment is proposed to indirectly text thermo-charged capacitor functioning.
Thermo Field Dynamics and Kinetic Coefficients of a Charged Boson Gas  [PDF]
P. A. Henning
Physics , 1993, DOI: 10.1016/0375-9474(94)90330-1
Abstract: Thermo Field Dynamics for inhomogeneous systems is generalized to quantum fields with a continuous single-particle mass spectrum. The modification of the hamiltonian in states with a local thermal Bogoliubov symmetry is used to calculate thermal conductivity and diffusion coefficient of pions interacting with hot, compressed nuclear matter.
GROUNDWATER RESOURCES DISTRIBUTION IN THE EAST SLOVAKIA AND THEIR EXPLOITABILITY
Jetel Ján,Tometz Ladislav
Acta Montanistica Slovaca , 1997,
Abstract: Uneven spatial distribution of groundwater resources in the East Slovakia is unfavourable to their economical exploitability. Hitherto, the assessment of groundwater resources in particular regions expresses only the groundwater amount and quality without taking into account the dispersal of catchworks. The authors suggest to express the spatial concentration of groundwater exploitation points by several quantitative indices for complementing the resources assessment.
Infinite Networks of Identical Capacitors  [PDF]
J. H. Asad,R. S. Hijjawi,A. J. Sakaji,J. M. Khalifeh
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1142/S0217984910022767
Abstract: The capacitance between the origin and any other lattice site in an infinite square lattice of identical capacitors is studied. The method is generalized to infinite Simple Cubic (SC) lattice. We make use of the superposition principle and the symmetry of the infinite grid
Radiation effects in polycarbonate capacitors  [PDF]
Vujisi? Milo?,Stankovi? Koviljka,Doli?anin Edin,Jovanovi? Bojan
Nuclear Technology and Radiation Protection , 2009, DOI: 10.2298/ntrp0903209v
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to examine the influence of neutron and gamma irradiation on the dissipation factor and capacitance of capacitors with polycarbonate dielectrics. The operation of capacitors subject to extreme conditions, such as the presence of ionizing radiation fields, is of special concern in military industry and space technology. Results obtained show that the exposure to a mixed neutron and gamma radiation field causes a decrease of capacitance, while the loss tangent remains unchanged.
InAs Nanowire MOS Capacitors  [PDF]
Stefano Roddaro,Kristian Nilsson,Gvidas Astromskas,Lars Samuelson,Lars-Erik Wernersson,Ovol Karlstrom,Andreas Wacker
Physics , 2008,
Abstract: We present a capacitance-voltage study for arrays of vertical InAs nanowires. MOS capacitors are obtained by insulating the nanowires with a conformal 10nm HfO2 layer and using a top Cr/Au metallization as one of the capacitor's electrodes. The described fabrication and characterization technique enables a systematic investigation of the carrier density in the nanowires as well as of the quality of the MOS interface.
Reliable Testing of Capacitors
Anoosha Movva,,Singavarapu Navya,,Alisha
International Journal of Innovative Technology and Exploring Engineering , 2013,
Abstract: A capacitor is an electronic device that consists of two conducting plates bearing opposite electronic charges, having dielectric (insulator) medium as their separator. Different capacitors may make use of different dielectric. Mostly include air, paper, and plastic, polyester and polystyrene. A potential difference across the conducting plates causes the formation of a static electric field in the dielectric. Capacitor stores energy between the two conductors where the electric field is present. Charging is the process allows the capacitor to store energy. The capacitor has a wide range of application in electronic circuits with the purpose of restricting direct current (DC) and allowing alternating current (AC) to pass through. The device is basically built for storing energy and for releasing all the energy at once. The capacity of this device to hold an electrical charge is termed as 'capacitance' and it is measured by Farads. For the measurement of electric charge between the two conducting plates is measured in the reliable methodology is described below.
Electrically tuned super-capacitors  [PDF]
Tazima S. Chowdhury,Haim Grebel
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: Fast charging and discharging of large amounts of electrical energy make super-capacitors ideal for short-term energy storage [1-5]. In its simplest form, the super-capacitor is an electrolytic capacitor made of an anode and a cathode immersed in an electrolyte. As for an ordinary capacitor, minimizing the charge separation distance and increasing the electrode area increase capacitance. In super-capacitors, charge separation is of nano-meter scale at each of the electrode interface (the Helmholtz double layer). Making the electrodes porous increases their effective surface area [6-8]. A separating layer between the anode and the cathode electrodes is used to minimize unintentional electrical discharge (Figure 1). Here we show how to increase the capacitance of super-capacitors by more than 45 percent when modifying the otherwise passive separator layer into an active diode-like structure. Active control of super-capacitors may increase their efficiency during charge and discharge cycles. Controlling ion flow in electro-chemical cells is the first step toward a new type of ion-transistors.
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