Abstract:
It is shown that the electron coupling to photons in field-dressed nanostructures can result in the ground electron-photon state with a nonzero electric current. Since the current is associated with the ground state, it flows without the Joule heating of the nanostructure and is nondissipative. Such a dissipationless electron transport can be realized in strongly coupled electron-photon systems with the broken time-reversal symmetry - particularly, in quantum rings and chiral nanostructures dressed by circularly polarized photons.

Abstract:
The electron-electron interaction in carbon nanostructures was studied. A new method which allows to determine the electron-electron interaction constant $\lambda_c$ from the analysis of quantum correction to the magnetic susceptibility and the magnetoresistance was developed. Three types of carbon materials: arc-produced multiwalled carbon nanotubes (arc-MWNTs), CVD-produced catalytic multiwalled carbon nanotubes (c-MWNTs) and pyrolytic carbon were used for investigation. We found that $\lambda_c$=0.2 for arc-MWNTs (before and after bromination treatment); $\lambda_c$ = 0.1 for pyrolytic graphite; $\lambda_c >$ 0 for c-MWNTs. We conclude that the curvature of graphene layers in carbon nanostructures leads to the increase of the electron-electron interaction constant $\lambda_c$.

Abstract:
The modification of acoustic phonons in semiconductor nanostructures embedded in a host crystal is investigated including corrections due to strain within continuum elasticity theory. Effective elastic constants are calculated employing {\em ab initio} density functional theory. For a spherical InAs quantum dot embedded in GaAs barrier material, the electron-phonon coupling is calculated. Its strength is shown to be suppressed compared to the assumption of bulk phonons.

Abstract:
We consider an electron-acoustic phonon coupling mechanism associated with the dependence of crystal dielectric permittivity on the strain (the so-called Pekar mechanism) in nanostructures characterized by strong confining electric fields. The efficiency of Pekar coupling is a function of both the absolute value and the spatial distribution of the electric field. It is demonstrated that this mechanism exhibits a phonon wavevector dependence similar to that of piezoelectricity and must be taken into account for electron transport calculations in an extended field distribution. In particular, we analyze the role of Pekar coupling in energy relaxation in silicon inversion layers. Comparison with the recent experimental results is provided to illustrate its potential significance.

Abstract:
We develope a model to describe the transmission coefficient and tunneling current in the presence of photon-electron coupling in a resonant diode. Our model takes into account multiphoton processes as well as the transitions between electronic states with different wave numbers. This is crutial to explain the experimental features observed in the tunneling current through a double barrier which cannot be reproduced with more simplified established models. According to our results, what experiments show in the current density are quantum photon-assisted features coming from multiphoton transitions which are not related with sample heating.

Abstract:
We review and summarize recent theoretical and experimental work on electron spin dynamics in quantum dots and related nanostructures due to hyperfine interaction with surrounding nuclear spins. This topic is of particular interest with respect to several proposals for quantum information processing in solid state systems. Specifically, we investigate the hyperfine interaction of an electron spin confined in a quantum dot in an s-type conduction band with the nuclear spins in the dot. This interaction is proportional to the square modulus of the electron wave function at the location of each nucleus leading to an inhomogeneous coupling, i.e. nuclei in different locations are coupled with different strength. In the case of an initially fully polarized nuclear spin system an exact analytical solution for the spin dynamics can be found. For not completely polarized nuclei, approximation-free results can only be obtained numerically in sufficiently small systems. We compare these exact results with findings from several approximation strategies.

Abstract:
Raman spectra from silicon nanostructures, recorded using excitation laser power density of 1.0 kW/cm^2, is employed here to reveal the dominance of thermal effects at temperatures higher than the room temperature. Room temperature Raman spectrum shows only phonon confinement and Fano effects. Raman spectra recorded at higher temperatures show increase in FWHM and decrease in asymmetry ratio with respect to its room temperature counterpart. Experimental Raman scattering data are analyzed successfully using theoretical Raman line-shape generated by incorporating the temperature dependence of phonon dispersion relation. Experimental and theoretical temperature dependent Raman spectra are in good agreement. Although quantum confinement and Fano effects persists, heating effects start dominating at higher temperatures than room tempaerature.

Abstract:
We analyzed the fidelity of the quantum state transfer (QST) from a photon-polarization qubit to an electron-spin-polarization qubit in a semiconductor quantum dot, with special attention to the exchange interaction between the electron and the simultaneously created hole. In order to realize a high-fidelity QST we had to separate the electron and hole as soon as possible, since the electron-hole exchange interaction modifies the orientation of the electron spin. Thus, we propose a double-dot structure to separate the electron and hole quickly, and show that the fidelity of the QST can reach as high as 0.996 if the resonant tunneling condition is satisfied.

Abstract:
We calculate the contribution of the photon-assisted interaction of electrons with leaky interface phonons to the dissipative dc photoconductivity of a two-dimensional electron system in a magnetic field. The calculated photoconductivity as a function of the frequency of microwave radiation and the magnetic field exhibits pronounced oscillations. The obtained oscillation structure is different from that in the case of photon-assisted interaction with impurities. We demonstrate that at a sufficiently strong microwave radiation in the certain ranges of its frequency (or in certain ranges of the magnetic field) this mechanism can result in the absolute negative conductivity.

Abstract:
We derive a rigorous theory of the interaction between photons and spatially extended excitons confined in quantum dots in inhomogeneous photonic materials. We show that, beyond the dipole approximation, the radiative decay rate is proportional to a non-local interaction function, which describes the interaction between light and spatially extended excitons. In this regime, light and matter degrees of freedom cannot be separated and a complex interplay between the nanostructured optical environment and the exciton envelope function emerges. We illustrate this by specific examples and derive a series of important analytical relations, which are useful for applying the formalism to practical problems. In the dipole limit, the decay rate is proportional to the projected local density of optical states and we obtain the strong and weak confinement regimes as special cases.