Abstract:
Tidal disruption has a dramatic impact on the outcome of neutron star-black hole mergers. The phenomenology of these systems can be divided in three classes: nondisruptive, mildly disruptive or disruptive. The cutoff frequency of the gravitational radiation produced during the merger (which is potentially measurable by interferometric detectors) is very different in each regime, and when the merger is disuptive it carries information on the neutron star equation of state. Here we use semianalytical tools to derive a formula for the critical binary mass ratio $Q=M_{\rm BH}/M_{\rm NS}$ below which mergers are disruptive as a function of the stellar compactness $\mathcal{C}=M_{\rm NS}/R_{\rm NS}$ and the dimensionless black hole spin $\chi$. We then employ a new gravitational waveform amplitude model, calibrated to $134$ general relativistic numerical simulations of binaries with black hole spin (anti-)aligned with the orbital angular momentum, to obtain a fit to the gravitational-wave cutoff frequency in the disruptive regime as a function of $\mathcal{C}$, $Q$ and $\chi$. Our findings are important to build gravitational wave template banks, to determine whether neutron star-black hole mergers can emit electromagnetic radiation (thus helping multimessenger searches), and to improve event rate calculations for these systems.

Abstract:
We present results from an extensive study of 88 precessing, equal-mass black-hole binaries with large spins (83 with intrinsic spins of 0.8 and 5 with intrinsic spins of 0.9)and use these data to model new nonlinear contributions to the gravitational recoil imparted to the merged black hole. We find a new effect, the cross kick, that enhances the recoil for partially aligned binaries beyond the hangup kick effect. This has the consequence of increasing the probabilities of recoils larger than 2000 km/s by nearly a factor two, and, consequently, of black holes getting ejected from galaxies, as well as the observation of large differential redshifts/blueshifts in the cores of recently merged galaxies.

Abstract:
We present a detailed descriptive analysis of the gravitational radiation from black-hole binary mergers of nonspinning black holes, based on numerical simulations of systems varying from equal-mass to a 6:1 mass ratio. Our primary goal is to present relatively complete information about the waveforms, including all the leading multipolar components, to interested researchers. In our analysis, we pursue the simplest physical description of the dominant features in the radiation, providing an interpretation of the waveforms in terms of an {\em implicit rotating source}. This interpretation applies uniformly to the full wave train, from inspiral through ringdown. We emphasize strong relationships among the $\ell=m$ modes that persist through the full wave train. Exploring the structure of the waveforms in more detail, we conduct detailed analytic fitting of the late-time frequency evolution, identifying a key quantitative feature shared by the $\ell=m$ modes among all mass ratios. We identify relationships, with a simple interpretation in terms of the implicit rotating source, among the evolution of frequency and amplitude, which hold for the late-time radiation. These detailed relationships provide sufficient information about the late-time radiation to yield a predictive model for the late-time waveforms, an alternative to the common practice of modeling by a sum of quasinormal mode overtones. We demonstrate an application of this in a new effective-one-body-based analytic waveform model.

Abstract:
The gravitational radiation emitted during the merger of a black hole with a neutron star is rather similar to the radiation from the merger of two black holes when the neutron star is not tidally disrupted. When tidal disruption occurs, gravitational waveforms can be broadly classified in two groups, depending on the spatial extent of the disrupted material. Extending previous work by some of us, here we present a phenomenological model for the gravitational waveform amplitude in the frequency domain encompassing the three possible outcomes of the merger: no tidal disruption, "mild" and "strong" tidal disruption. The model is calibrated to 134 general-relativistic numerical simulations of binaries where the black hole spin is either aligned or antialigned with the orbital angular momentum. All simulations were produced using the SACRA code and piecewise polytropic neutron star equations of state. The present model can be used to determine when black-hole binary waveforms are sufficient for gravitational-wave detection, to extract information on the equation of state from future gravitational-wave observations, to obtain more accurate estimates of black hole-neutron star merger event rates, and to determine the conditions under which these systems are plausible candidates as central engines of gamma-ray bursts, macronovae and kilonovae.

Abstract:
Black hole-neutron star binary mergers display a much richer phenomenology than black hole-black hole mergers, even in the relatively simple case - considered in this paper - in which both the black hole and the neutron star are nonspinning. When the neutron star is tidally disrupted, the gravitational wave emission is radically different from the black hole-black hole case and it can be broadly classified in two groups, depending on the spatial extent of the disrupted material. We present a phenomenological model for the gravitational waveform amplitude in the frequency domain that encompasses the three possible outcomes of the merger: no tidal disruption, "mild", and "strong" tidal disruption. The model is calibrated to general relativistic numerical simulations using piecewise polytropic neutron star equations of state. It should prove useful to extract information on the nuclear equation of state from future gravitational-wave observations, and also to obtain more accurate estimates of black hole-neutron star merger event rates in second- and third-generation interferometric gravitational-wave detectors. We plan to extend and improve the model as longer and more accurate gravitational waveforms become available, and we will make it publicly available online as a Mathematica package. We also present in appendix analytical fits of the projected KAGRA noise spectral density, that should be useful in data analysis applications.

Abstract:
The first direct detection of neutron-star-black-hole binaries will likely be made with gravitational-wave observatories. Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo will be able to observe neutron-star-black-hole mergers at a maximum distance of 900Mpc. To acheive this sensitivity, gravitational-wave searches will rely on using a bank of filter waveforms that accurately model the expected gravitational-wave signal. The angular momentum of the black hole is expected to be comparable to the orbital angular momentum. This angular momentum will affect the dynamics of the inspiralling system and alter the phase evolution of the emitted gravitational-wave signal. In addition, if the black hole's angular momentum is not aligned with the orbital angular momentum it will cause the orbital plane of the system to precess. In this work we demonstrate that if the effect of the black hole's angular momentum is neglected in the waveform models used in gravitational-wave searches, the detection rate of $(10+1.4)M_{\odot}$ neutron-star--black-hole systems would be reduced by $33 - 37%$. The error in this measurement is due to uncertainty in the Post-Newtonian approximations that are used to model the gravitational-wave signal of neutron-star-black-hole inspiralling binaries. We describe a new method for creating a bank of filter waveforms where the black hole has non-zero angular momentum, but is aligned with the orbital angular momentum. With this bank we find that the detection rate of $(10+1.4)M_{\odot}$ neutron-star-black-hole systems would be reduced by $26-33%$. Systems that will not be detected are ones where the precession of the orbital plane causes the gravitational-wave signal to match poorly with non-precessing filter waveforms. We identify the regions of parameter space where such systems occur and suggest methods for searching for highly precessing neutron-star-black-hole binaries.

Abstract:
Gravitational waves radiated by the coalescence of compact-object binaries containing a neutron star and a black hole are one of the most interesting sources for the ground-based gravitational-wave observatories Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo. Advanced LIGO will be sensitive to the inspiral of a $1.4\, M_\odot$ neutron star into a $10\,M_\odot$ black hole to a maximum distance of $\sim 900$ Mpc. Achieving this sensitivity and extracting the physics imprinted in observed signals requires accurate modeling of the binary to construct template waveforms. In a NSBH binary, the black hole may have significant angular momentum (spin), which affects the phase evolution of the emitted gravitational waves. We investigate the ability of post-Newtonian (PN) templates to model the gravitational waves emitted during the inspiral phase of NSBH binaries. We restrict the black hole's spin to be aligned with the orbital angular momentum and compare several approximants. We examine restricted amplitude waveforms that are accurate to 3.5PN order in the orbital dynamics and complete to 2.5PN order in the spin dynamics. We also consider PN waveforms with the recently derived 3.5PN spin-orbit and 3PN spin-orbit tail corrections. We compare these approximants to the effective-one-body model. For all these models, large disagreements start at low to moderate black hole spins, particularly for binaries where the spin is anti-aligned with the orbital angular momentum. We show that this divergence begins in the early inspiral at $v \sim 0.2$ for $\chi_{BH} \sim 0.4$. PN spin corrections beyond those currently known will be required for optimal detection searches and to measure the parameters of neutron star--black hole binaries. While this complicates searches, the strong dependence of the gravitational-wave signal on the spin dynamics will make it possible to extract significant astrophysical information.

Abstract:
The merger dynamics of a black hole-neutron star (BHNS) binary is influenced by the neutron star equation of state (EoS) through the latter's effect on the neutron star's radius and on the character of the mass transfer onto the black hole. We study these effects by simulating a number of BHNS binaries in full general relativity using a mixed pseudospectral/finite difference code. We consider several models of the neutron star matter EoS, including Gamma=2 and Gamma=2.75 polytropes and the nuclear-theory based Shen EoS. For models using the Shen EoS, we consider two limits for the evolution of the composition: source-free advection and instantaneous beta-equilibrium. To focus on EoS effects, we fix the mass ratio to 3:1 and the initial aligned black hole spin to a/m=0.5 for all models. We confirm earlier studies which found that more compact stars create a stronger gravitational wave signal but a smaller postmerger accretion disk. We also vary the EoS while holding the compaction fixed. All mergers are qualitatively similar, but we find signatures of the EoS in the waveform and in the tail and disk structures.

Abstract:
We model the formation of black hole-neutron star (BH-NS) binaries via dynamical interactions in globular clusters. We find that in dense, massive clusters, 16-61% of the BH-NS binaries formed by interactions with existing BH binaries will undergo mergers driven by the emission of gravitational radiation. If the BHs are retained by the cluster after merging with a NS, the BHs acquire subsequent NS companions and undergo several mergers. Thus, the merger rate depends critically upon whether or not the BH is retained by the cluster after the merger. Results from numerical relativity suggest that kick imparted to a ~7 M_sun BH after it merges with a NS will greatly exceed the cluster's escape velocity. In this case, the models suggest that the majority of BH-NS mergers in globular clusters occur within 4 Gyrs of the cluster's formation and would be unobservable by Advanced LIGO. For more massive BHs, on the other hand, the post merger kick is suppressed and the BH is retained. Models with 35 M_sun BHs predict Advanced LIGO detection rates in the range 0.04 - 0.7 per year. On the pessimistic end of this range, BH-NS mergers resulting from binary-single star interactions in globular clusters could account for an interesting fraction of all BH-NS mergers. On the optimistic end, this channel may dominate the rate of detectable BH-NS mergers.

Abstract:
We report results of a numerical-relativity simulation for the merger of a black hole-neutron star binary with a variety of equations of state (EOSs) modeled by piecewise polytropes. We focus in particular on the dependence of the gravitational waveform at the merger stage on the EOSs. The initial conditions are computed in the moving-puncture framework, assuming that the black hole is nonspinning and the neutron star has an irrotational velocity field. For a small mass ratio of the binaries (e.g., MBH/MNS = 2 where MBH and MNS are the masses of the black hole and neutron star, respectively), the neutron star is tidally disrupted before it is swallowed by the black hole irrespective of the EOS. Especially for less-compact neutron stars, the tidal disruption occurs at a more distant orbit. The tidal disruption is reflected in a cutoff frequency of the gravitational-wave spectrum, above which the spectrum amplitude exponentially decreases. A clear relation is found between the cutoff frequency of the gravitational-wave spectrum and the compactness of the neutron star. This relation also depends weakly on the stiffness of the EOS in the core region of the neutron star, suggesting that not only the compactness but also the EOS at high density is reflected in gravitational waveforms. The mass of the disk formed after the merger shows a similar correlation with the EOS, whereas the spin of the remnant black hole depends primarily on the mass ratio of the binary, and only weakly on the EOS. Properties of the remnant disks are also analyzed.