Abstract:
The angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES) technique has been developed rapidly over the last decay, accompanied by the improvement of energy and momentum resolutions. This technique has been established as the most powerful tool to investigate the high Tc cuprate superconductors. We review recent ARPES data on the cuprates from a theoretical point of view, with emphasis on the systematic evolution of the spectral weight near the momentum (pi,0) from insulator to overdoped systems. The effects of charge stripes on the ARPES spectra are also reviewed. Some recent experimental and theoretical efforts to understand the superconducting state and the pseudogap phenomenon are discussed.

Abstract:
We have performed an angle-resolved photoemission study of the electron-doped high-Tc superconductors (HTSCs) Sm_{1.85}Ce_{0.15}CuO_{4} (SCCO) and Eu_{1.85}Ce_{0.15}CuO_{4} (ECCO). Around the nodal point (pi/2, pi/2), we observed an energy gap at the Fermi level (EF) for both samples, resulting from the strong effects of antiferromagnetism. The magnitude of this gap in ECCO is larger than that in SCCO, implying that the effects of antiferromagnetism in ECCO are stronger than that in SCCO. Also, we quantitatively confirmed the effects of antiferromagnetism by the band dispersions to tight-binding calculation.

Abstract:
We present an overview of angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) studies of high-temperature cuprate superconductors aiming at elucidating the relationship between the superconductivity, the pseudogap, and the Fermi arc. ARPES studies of underdoped samples show a momentum dependence of the energy gap below Tc which deviates from a simple d-wave form, suggesting the coexistence of multiple energy scales in the superconducting state. Hence, two distinct energy scales have been introduced, namely, the gap near the node (characterized by Delta_0) and in the anti-nodal region (characterized by Delta^*). Dichotomy between them has been demonstrated from the material, doping, and temperature dependence of the energy gap. While Delta^* at the same doping level is approximately material independent, Delta_0 shows a strong material dependence tracking the magnitude of Tc,max. The anti-nodal gap does not close at Tc in contrast to the gap near the node which follows something closer to a BCS-like temperature dependence. An effective superconducting gap Delta_sc defined at the end point of the Fermi arc is found to be proportional to Tc's in various materials.

Abstract:
We performed high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy on triple-layered high-Tc cuprate Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10+delta. We have observed the full energy dispersion (electron and hole branches) of Bogoliubov quasiparticles and determined the coherence factors above and below EF as a function of momentum from the spectral intensity as well as from the energy dispersion based on BCS theory. The good quantitative agreement between the experiment and the theoretical prediction suggests the basic validity of BCS formalism in describing the superconducting state of cuprates.

Abstract:
We study the normal state electronic excitations probed by angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) in Bi2201 and Bi2212. Our main goal is to establish explicit criteria for determining the Fermi surface from ARPES data on strongly interacting systems where sharply defined quasiparticles do not exist and the dispersion is very weak in parts of the Brillouin zone. Additional complications arise from strong matrix element variations within the zone. We present detailed results as a function of incident photon energy, and show simple experimental tests to distinguish between an intensity drop due to matrix element effects and spectral weight loss due to a Fermi crossing. We reiterate the use of polarization selection rules in disentangling the effect of umklapps due to the BiO superlattice in Bi2212. We conclude that, despite all the complications, the Fermi surface can be determined unambiguously: it is a single large hole barrel centered about (pi,pi) in both materials.

Abstract:
High resolution angle-resolved photoemission measurements have been carried out to study the superconducting gap in the (Ba0.6K0.4)Fe2As2 superconductor with Tc=35 K. Two hole-like Fermi surface sheets around the G(0,0) point exhibit different superconducting gaps. The inner Fermi surface sheet shows larger (10-12 meV) and slightly momentum-dependent gap while the outer one has smaller (7-8 meV) and nearly isotropic gap. The lack of gap node in both Fermi surface sheets favours s-wave superconducting gap symmetry. Superconducting gap opening is also observed at the M(pi,pi) point. The two Fermi surface spots near the M point are gapped below Tc but the gap persists above Tc. The rich and detailed superconducting gap information will provide key insights and constraints in understanding pairing mechanism in the iron-based superconductors.

Abstract:
We have performed a systematic angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) study of the high-Tc cuprates La2-xSrxCuO4, ranging from the underdoped insulator to the superconductor to the overdoped metal. We have revealed a systematic doping evolution of the band dispersions and (underlying) Fermi surfaces, pseudogap and quasi-particle features under the influence of strong electron-electron interaction and electron-phonon interaction. The unusual transport and thermodynamic properties are explained by taking into account the pseudogap opening and the Fermi arc formation, due to which the carrier number decreases as the doped hole concentration decreases.

Abstract:
We have investigated the doping and temperature dependences of the pseudogap/superconducting gap in the single-layer cuprate La$_{2-x}$Sr$_x$CuO$_4$ by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. The results clearly exhibit two distinct energy and temperature scales, namely, the gap around ($\pi$,0) of magnitude $\Delta^*$ and the gap around the node characterized by the d-wave order parameter $\Delta_0$, like the double-layer cuprate Bi2212. In comparison with Bi2212 having higher $T_c$'s, $\Delta_0$ is smaller, while $\Delta^*$ and $T^*$ are similar. This result suggests that $\Delta^*$ and $T^*$ are approximately material-independent properties of a single CuO$_2$ plane, in contrast the material-dependent $\Delta_0$, representing the pairing strength.

Abstract:
This paper summarizes experimental results presented at the international conference honoring Prof. C.N. Yang's 80th birthday. I show seven examples that illustrate how one can use angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy to gain insights into the many-body physics responsible for the rich phase diagram of cuprate superconductors. I hope to give the reader a snapshot of the evolution of this experimental technique from a tool to study chemical bonds and band structure to an essential many-body spectroscopy for one of the most important physics problems of our time.

Abstract:
Recently, the time-reversal violation predicted for the pseudogap phase of the cuprates, which was observed by dichroism experiments using Angle-Resolved Photoemission has also been observed by polarized neutron diffraction. Earlier derivation of dichroism in angle resolved photoemission due to time-reversal violation relied on existence of mirror planes in the crystal. Here the theory of the effect is generalized to the case that mirror plane symmetry is weakly violated due to perturbing potentials such as a superstructure.