Abstract:
The low-frequency magneto-optical absorption spectra of bilayer Bernal graphene are studied within the tight-binding model and gradient approximation. The interlayer interactions strongly affect the electronic properties of the Landau levels (LL's), and thus enrich the optical absorption spectra. According to the characteristics of the wave functions, the low-energy LL's can be divided into two groups. This division results in four kinds of optical absorption peaks with complex optical selection rules. Observing the experimental convergent absorption frequencies close to zero magnetic field might be useful and reliable in determining the values of several hopping integrals. The dependence of the optical absorption spectra on the field strength is investigated in detail, and the results differ considerably from those of monolayer graphene.

Abstract:
Electronic properties of surface areas decoupled from graphite are studied using scanning tunnelling microscopy and spectroscopy. We show that it is possible to identify decoupled graphene monolayer, Bernal bilayer, and Bernal trilayer on graphite surface according to their tunnelling spectra in high magnetic field. The decoupled monolayer and bilayer exhibit Landau quantization of massless and massive Dirac fermions, respectively. The substrate generates a sizable band gap, ~35 meV, in the Bernal bilayer, therefore, the eightfold degenerate Landau level at the charge neutrality point is split into two valley-polarized quartets polarized on each layer. In the decoupled Bernal trilayer, we find that both massless and massive Dirac fermions coexist and its low-energy band structure can be described quite well by taking into account only the nearest-neighbor intra- and interlayer hopping parameters. A strong correlation between the Fermi velocity of the massless Dirac fermions and the effective mass of the massive Dirac fermions is observed in the trilayer. Our result demonstrates that the surface of graphite provides a natural ideal platform to probe the electronic spectra of graphene layers.

Abstract:
We investigate a magnetic impurity in Bernal stacked bilayer graphene by a non-perturbative numerical exact approach. In the two cases we study, impurity is placed on the top of two different sublattices (A and B) in bilayer graphene. We find that similar to the monolayer case, magnet moment of the impurity could still be tuned in a wide range through changing the chemical potential. However, the property of the impurity depends strongly on its location due to the broken symmetry between sublattices A and B caused by the Bernal stacking. This difference becomes more apparent with the increase in the hybridization and decrease in the on-site Coulomb repulsion. Additionally, we calculate the impurity spectral densities and the correlation functions between the impurity and the conduction-band electrons. All the computational results show the same spatial dependence on the location of the impurity.

Abstract:
We present the first Raman spectroscopic study of Bernal bilayer graphene flakes under uniaxial tension. Apart from a purely mechanical behavior in flake regions where both layers are strained evenly, certain effects stem from inhomogeneous stress distribution across the layers. These phenomena such as the removal of inversion symmetry in bilayer graphene may have important implications in the band-gap engineering providing an alternative route to induce the formation of a band-gap.

Abstract:
We examine the quantum Hall effect in bilayer graphene grown on Cu substrates by chemical vapor deposition. Spatially resolved Raman spectroscopy suggests a mixture of Bernal (A-B) stacked and rotationally faulted (twisted) domains. Magnetotransport measurements performed on bilayer domains with a wide 2D band reveal quantum Hall states (QHSs) at filling factors $\nu=4, 8, 12$ consistent with a Bernal stacked bilayer, while magnetotransport measurements in bilayer domains defined by a narrow 2D band show a superposition of QHSs of two independent monolayers. The analysis of the Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations measured in twisted graphene bilayers provides the carrier density in each layer as a function of the gate bias and the inter-layer capacitance.

Abstract:
The optical conductivity of graphene and bilayer graphene in quantizing magnetic fields is studied. Both dynamical conductivities, longitudinal and Hall's, are analytically evaluated. The conductivity peaks are explained in terms of electron transitions. Correspondences between the transition frequencies and the magneto-optical features are established using the theoretical results. The main optical transitions obey the selection rule with $\Delta n=1$ for the Landau number $n$. The Faraday rotation and light transmission in the quantizing magnetic fields are calculated. The effects of temperatures and magnetic fields on the chemical potential are considered. \pacs{71.20.Nr, 78.20.Ci, 78.20.Bh}

Abstract:
We investigate the magnetotransport properties of quasi-free standing epitaxial graphene bilayer on SiC, grown by atmospheric pressure graphitization in Ar, followed by H$_2$ intercalation. At the charge neutrality point the longitudinal resistance shows an insulating behavior, which follows a temperature dependence consistent with variable range hopping transport in a gapped state. In a perpendicular magnetic field, we observe quantum Hall states (QHSs) both at filling factors ($\nu$) multiple of four ($\nu=4, 8, 12$), as well as broken valley symmetry QHSs at $\nu=0$ and $\nu=6$. These results unambiguously show that the quasi-free standing graphene bilayer grown on the Si-face of SiC exhibits Bernal stacking.

Abstract:
We present a self-consistent calculation of the interlayer asymmetry in bilayer graphene caused by an applied electric field in magnetic fields. We show how this asymmetry influences the Landau level spectrum in bilayer graphene and the observable inter-Landau level transitions when they are studied as a function of high magnetic field at fixed filling factor as measured experimentally by E.A. Henriksen et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100 (2008), 087403. We also analyze the magneto-optical spectra of bilayer flakes in the photon-energy range corresponding to transitions between degenerate and split bands of bilayers.

Abstract:
We study the influence of different kinds of gaps in a quasiparticle spectrum on longitudinal and transverse optical conductivities of bilayer graphene. An exact analytical expression for magneto-optical conductivity is derived using a low-energy two-band Hamiltonian. We consider how the layer asymmetry gap caused by a bias electric field and a time-reversal symmetry breaking gap affect the absorption lines. The limit of zero magnetic field is then analyzed for an arbitrary carrier density in the two-band model. For a neutral bilayer graphene, the optical Hall and longitudinal conductivities are calculated exactly in the four-band model with four different gaps and zero magnetic field. It is shown that two different time-reversal symmetry breaking states can be distinguished by analyzing the dependence of the optical Hall conductivity on the energy of photon. These time-reversal symmetry breaking states are expected to be observed experimentally via optical polarization rotation either in the Faraday or Kerr effects. We analyze a possibility of such an experiment for a free-standing graphene, graphene on a thick substrate, and graphene on a double-layer substrate.

Abstract:
We probe electronic excitations between Landau levels in freestanding $N-$layer graphene over a broad energy range, with unprecedented spectral and spatial resolution, using micro-magneto Raman scattering spectroscopy. A characteristic evolution of electronic bands in up to five Bernal-stacked graphene layers is evidenced and shown to remarkably follow a simple theoretical approach, based on an effective bilayer model. $(N>3)$-layer graphene appear as appealing candidates in the quest for novel phenomena, particularly in the quantum Hall effect regime. Our work paves the way towards minimally-invasive investigations of magneto-excitons in other emerging low-dimensional systems, with a spatial resolution down to 1$~\mu$m.