Abstract:
Transport through two quantum dots laterally embedded in Aharonov-Bohm interferometry with infinite intradot and arbitrary interdot Coulomb repulsion is analyzed in the weak coupling and Coulomb blockade regime. By employing the modified quantum rate equations and the slave-boson approach, we establish a general dc current formula at temperatures higher than the Kondo temperature for the case that the spin degenerate levels of two dots are close to each other. We examine two simple examples for identical dots - no doubly occupied states and no empty state. In the former, completely destructive coherent transport and phase locking appear at magnetic flux $\Phi=\Phi_{0}/2$ and $\Phi=0$ respectively; in the latter, partially coherent transport exhibits an oscillation with magnetic flux having a period of $\Phi_0$.

Abstract:
In this work we analyze an Aharonov-Bohm interferometer in the tunneling regime. In this regime, current magnification effect which arises in presence of transport currents is absent. A slight modification in the form of a quantum well incorporated in one of the arms leads to revival of current magnification. Systematics in magneto-conductance oscillations are observed in this evanescent wave geometry. In this framework we also see absence of Fano lineshapes in transmission resonances but once again one can recover these if the direct path supports propagating modes.

Abstract:
A voltage bias applied to a conductor induces a change of the current noise with respect to the equilibrium noise known as excess noise. We analyze the excess noise of the electronic current flowing through a mesoscopic Aharonov-Bohm ring threaded by a magnetic flux, coupled to a side gate, and contacted by two metallic electrodes. It is shown that the excess noise can be controlled both magnetically and electrostatically, demonstrating the full tunability of the system. At zero frequency, the ratio of the noise strength to the current (Fano factor) can thereby be minimized. Remarkably, at finite frequency, regions of negative excess noise emerge.

Abstract:
We present a microscopic picture of quantum transport in the Aharonov-Bohm (AB) interferometer taking into account electron interaction within the Hartree and the spin density functional theory approximations. We discuss the structure of the edge states for different number of the Landau levels in the leads, their coupling to the states in the central island and the formation of compressible/incompressible strips in the interferometer. Based on our results we discuss the existing theories of the unexpected AB periodicity, which essentially rely on specific phenomenological models of the states and their coupling in the interferometer. Our work provides a basis for such the theories, giving a detailed microscopic description of the propagating states and the global electrostatics in the system at hand.

Abstract:
We have investigated experimentally resonant tunnelling through single-particle states formed around an antidot by a magnetic field, in the fractional quantum Hall regime. For 1/3 filling factor around the antidot, Aharonov-Bohm oscillations are observed with the same magnetic field period as in the integer quantum Hall regime. All our measurements are consistent with quasiparticles of fractional charge e*. However, the results are also consistent with particles of any charge (>= e*) as the system must rearrange every time the flux enclosed increases by h/e.

Abstract:
Recent experiments [M. Yamamoto et al., Nature Nanotechnology 7, 247 (2012)] used the transport of electrons through an Aharonov-Bohm interferometer and two coupled channels (at both ends of the interferometer) to demonstrate a manipulable flying qubit. Results included in-phase and anti-phase Aharonov-Bohm (AB) oscillations of the two outgoing currents as a function of the magnetic flux, for strong and weak inter-channel coupling, respectively. Here we present new experimental results for a three terminal interferometer, with a tunnel coupling between the two outgoing wires. We show that in some limits, this system is an even simpler realization of the "two-slit" experiment. We also present a simple tight- binding theoretical model which imitates the experimental setup. For weak inter-channel coupling, the AB oscillations in the current which is reflected from the device are very small, and therefore the oscillations in the two outgoing currents must cancel each other, yielding the anti-phase behavior, independent of the length of the coupling regime. For strong inter-channel coupling, whose range depends on the asymmetry between the channels, and for a relatively long coupling distance, all except two of the waves in the coupled channels become evanescent. For the remaining running waves one has a very weak dependence of the ratio between the currents in the two channels on the magnetic flux, implying that these currents are in phase with each other.

Abstract:
We report experiments on a quantum electron interferometer fabricated from high mobility, low density GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure material. In this device, a nearly circular electron island is defined by four front gates deposited in etched trenches. The island is separated from the 2D electron bulk by two nearly open constrictions. In the quantum Hall regime, two counterpropagating edge channels are coupled by tunneling in the constrictions, thus forming a closed electron interference path.For several fixed front gate voltages, we observe periodic Aharonov-Bohm interference oscillations in four-terminal resistance as a function of the enclosed flux. The oscillation period DeltaB gives the area of the interference path S via quantization condition S=h/eDeltaB. We experimentally determine the dependence of S on the front gate voltage, and find that the Aharonov-Bohm quantization condition does not require significant corrections due to the confining potential. These results can be interpreted as a constant integrated compressibility of the island with respect to the front gates. We also analyze experimental results using two classical electrostatics models: one modeling the 2D electron density due to depletion from an etch trench, and another modeling the gate voltage dependence of the electron density profile in the island.

Abstract:
A numerical approach is employed to explain transport characteristics in realistic, quantum Hall based Aharonov-Bohm interferometers. First, the spatial distribution of incompressible strips, and thus the current channels, are obtained applying a self-consistent Thomas-Fermi method to a realistic heterostructure under quantized Hall conditions. Second, the time-dependent Schr\"odinger equation is solved for electrons injected in the current channels. Distinctive Aharonov-Bohm oscillations are found as a function of the magnetic flux. The oscillation amplitude strongly depends on the mutual distance between the transport channels and on their width. At an optimal distance the amplitude and thus the interchannel transport is maximized, which determines the maximum visibility condition. On the other hand, the transport is fully suppressed at magnetic fields corresponding to half-integer flux quanta. The results confirm the applicability of realistic Aharonov-Bohm interferometers as controllable current switches.

Abstract:
We investigate the DC Josephson effect in a superconductor-normal metal-superconductor junction where the normal region consists of a ballistic ring. We show that a fully controllable $\pi$-junction can be realized through the electro-magnetostatic Aharonov-Bohm effect in the ring. The sign and the magnitude of the supercurrent can be tuned by varying the magnetic flux and the gate voltage applied to one arm, around suitable values. The implementation in a realistic set-up is discussed.

Abstract:
We propose a general scattering matrix formalism that guarantees the charge conservation at junctions between conducting arms with arbitrary spin interactions. By using our formalism, we find that the spin-flip scattering can happen even at nonmagnetic junctions if the spin eigenstates in arms are not orthogonal. We apply our formalism to the Aharonov-Bohm interferometer consisting of $n$-type semiconductor ring with both the Rashba spin-orbit coupling and the Zeeman splitting. We discuss the characteristics of the interferometer as conditional/unconditional spin switch in the weak/strong-coupling limit, respectively.