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Chiral Symmetry Breaking and the Dirac Spectrum at Nonzero Chemical Potential  [PDF]
J. C. Osborn,K. Splittorff,J. J. M. Verbaarschot
Physics , 2005, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.94.202001
Abstract: The relation between the spectral density of the QCD Dirac operator at nonzero baryon chemical potential and the chiral condensate is investigated. We use the analytical result for the eigenvalue density in the microscopic regime which shows oscillations with a period that scales as 1/V and an amplitude that diverges exponentially with the volume $V=L^4$. We find that the discontinuity of the chiral condensate is due to the whole oscillating region rather than to an accumulation of eigenvalues at the origin. These results also extend beyond the microscopic regime to chemical potentials $\mu \sim 1/L$.
Lattice Gauge Theory Simulations at Nonzero Chemical Potential in the Chiral Limit  [PDF]
I. M. Barbour,S. E. Morrison,John B. Kogut
Physics , 1996, DOI: 10.1016/S0920-5632(97)00794-9
Abstract: We present a method of simulating lattice QCD at nonzero chemical potential in the chiral limit. By adding a weak four-fermi interaction to the standard staggered fermion SU(3) QCD action, we produce an algorithm in which the limit of massless fermions is well-behaved and physical. Using configurations at zero chemical potential, and an exact fugacity expansion of the fermion determinant, we can simulate QCD at nonzero chemical potential and evade the notorious problem of the complex action. Small lattice simulations give physical results: At strong gauge coupling the critical chemical potential \mu_c agrees with theoretical expectations and at weak gauge coupling \mu_c is nonzero in the low temperature confined phase of QCD and jumps to zero in the high temperature quark-gluon plasma phase. In all these simulations the quarks are exactly massless and there is a Goldstone pion.
Chiral Condensate at Nonzero Chemical Potential in the Microscopic Limit of QCD  [PDF]
J. C. Osborn,K. Splittorff,J. J. M. Verbaarschot
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.78.065029
Abstract: The chiral condensate in QCD at zero temperature does not depend on the quark chemical potential (up to one third the nucleon mass), whereas the spectral density of the Dirac operator shows a strong dependence on the chemical potential. The cancellations which make this possible also occur on the microscopic scale, where they can be investigated by means of a random matrix model. We show that they can be understood in terms of orthogonality properties of orthogonal polynomials. In the strong non-Hermiticity limit they are related to integrability properties of the spectral density. As a by-product we find exact analytical expressions for the partially quenched chiral condensate in the microscopic domain at nonzero chemical potential.
Chiral Random Two-Matrix Theory and QCD with imaginary chemical potential  [PDF]
G. Akemann
Physics , 2007,
Abstract: We summarise recent results for the chiral Random Two-Matrix Theory constructed to describe QCD in the epsilon-regime with imaginary chemical potential. The virtue of this theory is that unquenched Lattice simulations can be used to determine both low energy constants Sigma and F in the leading order chiral Lagrangian, due to their respective coupling to quark mass and chemical potential. We briefly recall the analytic formulas for all density and individual eigenvalue correlations and then illustrate them in detail in the simplest, quenched case with imaginary isospin chemical potential. Some peculiarities are pointed out for this example: i) the factorisation of density and individual eigenvalue correlation functions for large chemical potential and ii) the factorisation of the non-Gaussian weight function of bi-orthogonal polynomials into Gaussian weights with ordinary orthogonal polynomials.
Chiral crystals in strong-coupling lattice QCD at nonzero chemical potential  [PDF]
Barak Bringoltz
Physics , 2006, DOI: 10.1088/1126-6708/2007/03/016
Abstract: We study the effective action for strong-coupling lattice QCD with one-component staggered fermions in the case of nonzero chemical potential and zero temperature. The structure of this action suggests that at large chemical potentials its ground state is a crystalline `chiral density wave' that spontaneously breaks chiral symmetry and translation invariance. In mean-field theory, on the other hand, we find that this state is unstable. We show that lattice artifacts are partly responsible for this, and suggest that if this phase exists in QCD, then finding it in Monte-Carlo simulations would require simulating on relatively fine lattices. In particular, the baryon mass in lattice units, m_B, should be considerably smaller than its strong-coupling limit of m_B~3.
Finite density QCD via imaginary chemical potential  [PDF]
M. D'Elia,M. -P. Lombardo
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.67.014505
Abstract: We study QCD at nonzero temperature and baryon density in the framework of the analytic continuation from imaginary chemical potential. We carry out simulations of QCD with four flavor of staggered fermions, and reconstruct the phase diagram in the temperature-imaginary \mu plane. We consider ans\"atze for the analytic continuation of the critical line and other observables motivated both by theoretical considerations and mean field calculations in four fermion models and random matrix theory. We determine the critical line, and the analytic continuation of the chiral condensate, up to \mu_B approx. 500 MeV. The results are in qualitative agreement with the predictions of model field theories, and consistent with a first order chiral transition. The correlation between the chiral transition and the deconfinement transition observed at \mu=0 persists at nonzero density.
Random matrix triality at nonzero chemical potential  [PDF]
M. A. Halasz,J. C. Osborn,J. J. M. Verbaarschot
Physics , 1997, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.56.7059
Abstract: We introduce three universality classes of chiral random matrix ensembles with a nonzero chemical potential and real, complex or quaternion real matrix elements. In the thermodynamic limit we find that the distribution of the eigenvalues in the complex plane does not depend on the Dyson index, and is given by the solution proposed by Stephanov. For a finite number of degrees of freedom, $N$, we find an accumulation of eigenvalues on the imaginary axis for real matrices, whereas for quaternion real matrices we find a depletion of eigenvalues in this domain. This effect is of order $1/\sqrt N$. In particular for the real case the resolvent shows a discontinuity of order $1/\sqrt N$. These results are in agreement with lattice QCD simulations with staggered fermions and recent instanton liquid simulations both for two colors and nonzero chemical potential.
The chiral phase transition for two-flavour QCD at imaginary and zero chemical potential  [PDF]
Claudio Bonati,Massimo D'Elia,Philippe de Forcrand,Owe Philipsen,Francesco Sanfillippo
Physics , 2013,
Abstract: The chiral symmetry of QCD with two massless quark flavours gets restored in a non-analytic chiral phase transition at finite temperature and zero density. Whether this is a first-order or a second-order transition has not yet been determined unambiguously, due to the difficulties of simulating light quarks. We investigate the nature of the chiral transition as a function of quark mass and imaginary chemical potential, using staggered fermions on N_t=4 lattices. At sufficiently large imaginary chemical potential, a clear signal for a first-order transition is obtained for small masses, which weakens with decreasing imaginary chemical potential. The second-order critical line m_c(mu_i), which marks the boundary between first-order and crossover behaviour, extrapolates to a finite m_c(mu_i=0) with known critical exponents. This implies a definitely first-order transition in the chiral limit on relatively coarse, N_t=4 lattices.
Probing deconfinement in a chiral effective model with Polyakov loop at imaginary chemical potential  [PDF]
Kenji Morita,Vladimir Skokov,Bengt Friman,Krzysztof Redlich
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.84.076009
Abstract: The phase structure of the two-flavor Polyakov-loop extended Nambu-Jona-Lashinio model is explored at finite temperature and imaginary chemical potential with a particular emphasis on the confinement-deconfinement transition. We point out that the confined phase is characterized by a $\cos3\mu_I/T$ dependence of the chiral condensate on the imaginary chemical potential while in the deconfined phase this dependence is given by $\cos\mu_I/T$ and accompanied by a cusp structure induced by the Z(3) transition. We demonstrate that the phase structure of the model strongly depends on the choice of the Polyakov loop potential $\mathcal{U}$. Furthermore, we find that by changing the four fermion coupling constant $G_s$, the location of the critical endpoint of the deconfinement transition can be moved into the real chemical potential region. We propose a new parameter characterizing the confinement-deconfinement transition.
Determination of QCD phase diagram from the imaginary chemical potential region  [PDF]
Yuji Sakai,Kouji Kashiwa,Hiroaki Kouno,Masayuki Matsuzaki,Masanobu Yahiro
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.79.096001
Abstract: We test the reliability of the the Polyakov-loop extended Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (PNJL) model, comparing the model result with the lattice data at nonzero imaginary chemical potential. The PNJL model with the vector-type four-quark and scalar-type eight-quark interactions reproduces the lattice data on the pseudocritical temperatures of the deconfinement and chiral phase transitions. The QCD phase diagram in the real chemical potential region is predicted by the PNJL model. The critical endpoint survives, even if the vector-type four-quark interaction is taken into account.
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